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From: Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@google.com>
To: Masahiro Yamada <masahiroy@kernel.org>,
	Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>
Cc: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>,
	Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>,
	Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>,
	"Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@kernel.org>,
	Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>,
	Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@google.com>,
	clang-built-linux@googlegroups.com,
	kernel-hardening@lists.openwall.com, linux-arch@vger.kernel.org,
	linux-arm-kernel@lists.infradead.org,
	linux-kbuild@vger.kernel.org, linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org,
	linux-pci@vger.kernel.org, x86@kernel.org,
	Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@google.com>
Subject: [PATCH v6 08/25] kbuild: add support for Clang LTO
Date: Mon, 12 Oct 2020 17:31:46 -0700
Message-ID: <20201013003203.4168817-9-samitolvanen@google.com> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20201013003203.4168817-1-samitolvanen@google.com>

This change adds build system support for Clang's Link Time
Optimization (LTO). With -flto, instead of ELF object files, Clang
produces LLVM bitcode, which is compiled into native code at link
time, allowing the final binary to be optimized globally. For more
details, see:

  https://llvm.org/docs/LinkTimeOptimization.html

The Kconfig option CONFIG_LTO_CLANG is implemented as a choice,
which defaults to LTO being disabled. To use LTO, the architecture
must select ARCH_SUPPORTS_LTO_CLANG and support:

  - compiling with Clang,
  - compiling inline assembly with Clang's integrated assembler,
  - and linking with LLD.

While using full LTO results in the best runtime performance, the
compilation is not scalable in time or memory. CONFIG_THINLTO
enables ThinLTO, which allows parallel optimization and faster
incremental builds. ThinLTO is used by default if the architecture
also selects ARCH_SUPPORTS_THINLTO:

  https://clang.llvm.org/docs/ThinLTO.html

To enable LTO, LLVM tools must be used to handle bitcode files. The
easiest way is to pass the LLVM=1 option to make:

  $ make LLVM=1 defconfig
  $ scripts/config -e LTO_CLANG
  $ make LLVM=1

Alternatively, at least the following LLVM tools must be used:

  CC=clang LD=ld.lld AR=llvm-ar NM=llvm-nm

To prepare for LTO support with other compilers, common parts are
gated behind the CONFIG_LTO option, and LTO can be disabled for
specific files by filtering out CC_FLAGS_LTO.

Note that support for DYNAMIC_FTRACE and MODVERSIONS are added in
follow-up patches.

Signed-off-by: Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
---
 Makefile                          | 20 ++++++++-
 arch/Kconfig                      | 75 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h | 11 +++--
 scripts/Makefile.build            |  9 +++-
 scripts/Makefile.modfinal         |  9 +++-
 scripts/Makefile.modpost          | 21 ++++++++-
 scripts/link-vmlinux.sh           | 32 +++++++++----
 7 files changed, 159 insertions(+), 18 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index fda1f8a0b1c7..e91347082163 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -886,6 +886,21 @@ KBUILD_CFLAGS	+= $(CC_FLAGS_SCS)
 export CC_FLAGS_SCS
 endif
 
+ifdef CONFIG_LTO_CLANG
+ifdef CONFIG_THINLTO
+CC_FLAGS_LTO	+= -flto=thin -fsplit-lto-unit
+KBUILD_LDFLAGS	+= --thinlto-cache-dir=$(extmod-prefix).thinlto-cache
+else
+CC_FLAGS_LTO	+= -flto
+endif
+CC_FLAGS_LTO	+= -fvisibility=default
+endif
+
+ifdef CONFIG_LTO
+KBUILD_CFLAGS	+= $(CC_FLAGS_LTO)
+export CC_FLAGS_LTO
+endif
+
 ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_FORCE_FUNCTION_ALIGN_32B
 KBUILD_CFLAGS += -falign-functions=32
 endif
@@ -1477,7 +1492,7 @@ MRPROPER_FILES += include/config include/generated          \
 		  *.spec
 
 # Directories & files removed with 'make distclean'
-DISTCLEAN_FILES += tags TAGS cscope* GPATH GTAGS GRTAGS GSYMS
+DISTCLEAN_FILES += tags TAGS cscope* GPATH GTAGS GRTAGS GSYMS .thinlto-cache
 
 # clean - Delete most, but leave enough to build external modules
 #
@@ -1714,7 +1729,8 @@ _emodinst_post: _emodinst_
 	$(call cmd,depmod)
 
 clean-dirs := $(KBUILD_EXTMOD)
-clean: rm-files := $(KBUILD_EXTMOD)/Module.symvers $(KBUILD_EXTMOD)/modules.nsdeps
+clean: rm-files := $(KBUILD_EXTMOD)/Module.symvers $(KBUILD_EXTMOD)/modules.nsdeps \
+		   $(KBUILD_EXTMOD)/.thinlto-cache
 
 PHONY += help
 help:
diff --git a/arch/Kconfig b/arch/Kconfig
index 76ec3395b843..4ac5dda6d873 100644
--- a/arch/Kconfig
+++ b/arch/Kconfig
@@ -558,6 +558,81 @@ config SHADOW_CALL_STACK
 	  reading and writing arbitrary memory may be able to locate them
 	  and hijack control flow by modifying the stacks.
 
+config LTO
+	bool
+
+config ARCH_SUPPORTS_LTO_CLANG
+	bool
+	help
+	  An architecture should select this option if it supports:
+	  - compiling with Clang,
+	  - compiling inline assembly with Clang's integrated assembler,
+	  - and linking with LLD.
+
+config ARCH_SUPPORTS_THINLTO
+	bool
+	help
+	  An architecture should select this option if it supports Clang's
+	  ThinLTO.
+
+config THINLTO
+	bool "Clang ThinLTO"
+	depends on LTO_CLANG && ARCH_SUPPORTS_THINLTO
+	default y
+	help
+	  This option enables Clang's ThinLTO, which allows for parallel
+	  optimization and faster incremental compiles. More information
+	  can be found from Clang's documentation:
+
+	    https://clang.llvm.org/docs/ThinLTO.html
+
+	  If you say N here, the compiler will use full LTO, which may
+	  produce faster code, but building the kernel will be significantly
+	  slower as the linker won't efficiently utilize multiple threads.
+
+	  If unsure, say Y.
+
+choice
+	prompt "Link Time Optimization (LTO)"
+	default LTO_NONE
+	help
+	  This option enables Link Time Optimization (LTO), which allows the
+	  compiler to optimize binaries globally.
+
+	  If unsure, select LTO_NONE. Note that LTO is very resource-intensive
+	  so it's disabled by default.
+
+config LTO_NONE
+	bool "None"
+
+config LTO_CLANG
+	bool "Clang's Link Time Optimization (EXPERIMENTAL)"
+	# Clang >= 11: https://github.com/ClangBuiltLinux/linux/issues/510
+	depends on CC_IS_CLANG && CLANG_VERSION >= 110000 && LD_IS_LLD
+	depends on $(success,$(NM) --help | head -n 1 | grep -qi llvm)
+	depends on $(success,$(AR) --help | head -n 1 | grep -qi llvm)
+	depends on ARCH_SUPPORTS_LTO_CLANG
+	depends on !FTRACE_MCOUNT_RECORD
+	depends on !KASAN
+	depends on !GCOV_KERNEL
+	depends on !MODVERSIONS
+	select LTO
+	help
+          This option enables Clang's Link Time Optimization (LTO), which
+          allows the compiler to optimize the kernel globally. If you enable
+          this option, the compiler generates LLVM bitcode instead of ELF
+          object files, and the actual compilation from bitcode happens at
+          the LTO link step, which may take several minutes depending on the
+          kernel configuration. More information can be found from LLVM's
+          documentation:
+
+	    https://llvm.org/docs/LinkTimeOptimization.html
+
+	  To select this option, you also need to use LLVM tools to handle
+	  the bitcode by passing LLVM=1 to make.
+
+endchoice
+
 config HAVE_ARCH_WITHIN_STACK_FRAMES
 	bool
 	help
diff --git a/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h b/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h
index e1843976754a..77e5bd069dd4 100644
--- a/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h
+++ b/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h
@@ -90,15 +90,18 @@
  * .data. We don't want to pull in .data..other sections, which Linux
  * has defined. Same for text and bss.
  *
+ * With LTO_CLANG, the linker also splits sections by default, so we need
+ * these macros to combine the sections during the final link.
+ *
  * RODATA_MAIN is not used because existing code already defines .rodata.x
  * sections to be brought in with rodata.
  */
-#ifdef CONFIG_LD_DEAD_CODE_DATA_ELIMINATION
+#if defined(CONFIG_LD_DEAD_CODE_DATA_ELIMINATION) || defined(CONFIG_LTO_CLANG)
 #define TEXT_MAIN .text .text.[0-9a-zA-Z_]*
-#define DATA_MAIN .data .data.[0-9a-zA-Z_]* .data..LPBX*
+#define DATA_MAIN .data .data.[0-9a-zA-Z_]* .data..L* .data..compoundliteral*
 #define SDATA_MAIN .sdata .sdata.[0-9a-zA-Z_]*
-#define RODATA_MAIN .rodata .rodata.[0-9a-zA-Z_]*
-#define BSS_MAIN .bss .bss.[0-9a-zA-Z_]*
+#define RODATA_MAIN .rodata .rodata.[0-9a-zA-Z_]* .rodata..L*
+#define BSS_MAIN .bss .bss.[0-9a-zA-Z_]* .bss..compoundliteral*
 #define SBSS_MAIN .sbss .sbss.[0-9a-zA-Z_]*
 #else
 #define TEXT_MAIN .text
diff --git a/scripts/Makefile.build b/scripts/Makefile.build
index 6db5b1f55b14..81750ef4a633 100644
--- a/scripts/Makefile.build
+++ b/scripts/Makefile.build
@@ -111,7 +111,7 @@ endif
 # ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 quiet_cmd_cc_s_c = CC $(quiet_modtag)  $@
-      cmd_cc_s_c = $(CC) $(filter-out $(DEBUG_CFLAGS), $(c_flags)) -fverbose-asm -S -o $@ $<
+      cmd_cc_s_c = $(CC) $(filter-out $(DEBUG_CFLAGS) $(CC_FLAGS_LTO), $(c_flags)) -fverbose-asm -S -o $@ $<
 
 $(obj)/%.s: $(src)/%.c FORCE
 	$(call if_changed_dep,cc_s_c)
@@ -428,8 +428,15 @@ $(obj)/lib.a: $(lib-y) FORCE
 # Do not replace $(filter %.o,^) with $(real-prereqs). When a single object
 # module is turned into a multi object module, $^ will contain header file
 # dependencies recorded in the .*.cmd file.
+ifdef CONFIG_LTO_CLANG
+quiet_cmd_link_multi-m = AR [M]  $@
+cmd_link_multi-m =						\
+	rm -f $@; 						\
+	$(AR) cDPrsT $@ $(filter %.o,$^)
+else
 quiet_cmd_link_multi-m = LD [M]  $@
       cmd_link_multi-m = $(LD) $(ld_flags) -r -o $@ $(filter %.o,$^)
+endif
 
 $(multi-used-m): FORCE
 	$(call if_changed,link_multi-m)
diff --git a/scripts/Makefile.modfinal b/scripts/Makefile.modfinal
index ae01baf96f4e..2cb9a1d88434 100644
--- a/scripts/Makefile.modfinal
+++ b/scripts/Makefile.modfinal
@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@
 PHONY := __modfinal
 __modfinal:
 
+include $(objtree)/include/config/auto.conf
 include $(srctree)/scripts/Kbuild.include
 
 # for c_flags
@@ -29,6 +30,12 @@ quiet_cmd_cc_o_c = CC [M]  $@
 
 ARCH_POSTLINK := $(wildcard $(srctree)/arch/$(SRCARCH)/Makefile.postlink)
 
+ifdef CONFIG_LTO_CLANG
+# With CONFIG_LTO_CLANG, reuse the object file we compiled for modpost to
+# avoid a second slow LTO link
+prelink-ext := .lto
+endif
+
 quiet_cmd_ld_ko_o = LD [M]  $@
       cmd_ld_ko_o =                                                     \
 	$(LD) -r $(KBUILD_LDFLAGS)					\
@@ -36,7 +43,7 @@ quiet_cmd_ld_ko_o = LD [M]  $@
 		-T scripts/module.lds -o $@ $(filter %.o, $^);		\
 	$(if $(ARCH_POSTLINK), $(MAKE) -f $(ARCH_POSTLINK) $@, true)
 
-$(modules): %.ko: %.o %.mod.o scripts/module.lds FORCE
+$(modules): %.ko: %$(prelink-ext).o %.mod.o scripts/module.lds FORCE
 	+$(call if_changed,ld_ko_o)
 
 targets += $(modules) $(modules:.ko=.mod.o)
diff --git a/scripts/Makefile.modpost b/scripts/Makefile.modpost
index f54b6ac37ac2..9ff8bfdb574d 100644
--- a/scripts/Makefile.modpost
+++ b/scripts/Makefile.modpost
@@ -43,6 +43,9 @@ __modpost:
 include include/config/auto.conf
 include scripts/Kbuild.include
 
+# for ld_flags
+include scripts/Makefile.lib
+
 MODPOST = scripts/mod/modpost								\
 	$(if $(CONFIG_MODVERSIONS),-m)							\
 	$(if $(CONFIG_MODULE_SRCVERSION_ALL),-a)					\
@@ -102,12 +105,26 @@ $(input-symdump):
 	@echo >&2 'WARNING: Symbol version dump "$@" is missing.'
 	@echo >&2 '         Modules may not have dependencies or modversions.'
 
+ifdef CONFIG_LTO_CLANG
+# With CONFIG_LTO_CLANG, .o files might be LLVM bitcode, so we need to run
+# LTO to compile them into native code before running modpost
+prelink-ext := .lto
+
+quiet_cmd_cc_lto_link_modules = LTO [M] $@
+cmd_cc_lto_link_modules = $(LD) $(ld_flags) -r -o $@ --whole-archive $^
+
+%.lto.o: %.o
+	$(call if_changed,cc_lto_link_modules)
+endif
+
+modules := $(sort $(shell cat $(MODORDER)))
+
 # Read out modules.order to pass in modpost.
 # Otherwise, allmodconfig would fail with "Argument list too long".
 quiet_cmd_modpost = MODPOST $@
-      cmd_modpost = sed 's/ko$$/o/' $< | $(MODPOST) -T -
+      cmd_modpost = sed 's/\.ko$$/$(prelink-ext)\.o/' $< | $(MODPOST) -T -
 
-$(output-symdump): $(MODORDER) $(input-symdump) FORCE
+$(output-symdump): $(MODORDER) $(input-symdump) $(modules:.ko=$(prelink-ext).o) FORCE
 	$(call if_changed,modpost)
 
 targets += $(output-symdump)
diff --git a/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh b/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
index 372c3719f94c..ebb9f912aab6 100755
--- a/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
+++ b/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
@@ -56,6 +56,14 @@ modpost_link()
 		${KBUILD_VMLINUX_LIBS}				\
 		--end-group"
 
+	if [ -n "${CONFIG_LTO_CLANG}" ]; then
+		# This might take a while, so indicate that we're doing
+		# an LTO link
+		info LTO ${1}
+	else
+		info LD ${1}
+	fi
+
 	${LD} ${KBUILD_LDFLAGS} -r -o ${1} ${objects}
 }
 
@@ -103,13 +111,22 @@ vmlinux_link()
 	fi
 
 	if [ "${SRCARCH}" != "um" ]; then
-		objects="--whole-archive			\
-			${KBUILD_VMLINUX_OBJS}			\
-			--no-whole-archive			\
-			--start-group				\
-			${KBUILD_VMLINUX_LIBS}			\
-			--end-group				\
-			${@}"
+		if [ -n "${CONFIG_LTO_CLANG}" ]; then
+			# Use vmlinux.o instead of performing the slow LTO
+			# link again.
+			objects="--whole-archive		\
+				vmlinux.o 			\
+				--no-whole-archive		\
+				${@}"
+		else
+			objects="--whole-archive		\
+				${KBUILD_VMLINUX_OBJS}		\
+				--no-whole-archive		\
+				--start-group			\
+				${KBUILD_VMLINUX_LIBS}		\
+				--end-group			\
+				${@}"
+		fi
 
 		${LD} ${KBUILD_LDFLAGS} ${LDFLAGS_vmlinux}	\
 			${strip_debug#-Wl,}			\
@@ -274,7 +291,6 @@ fi;
 ${MAKE} -f "${srctree}/scripts/Makefile.build" obj=init need-builtin=1
 
 #link vmlinux.o
-info LD vmlinux.o
 modpost_link vmlinux.o
 objtool_link vmlinux.o
 
-- 
2.28.0.1011.ga647a8990f-goog


  parent reply index

Thread overview: 71+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2020-10-13  0:31 [PATCH v6 00/25] Add " Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 01/25] kbuild: preprocess module linker script Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 02/25] objtool: Add a pass for generating __mcount_loc Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-14 16:50   ` Ingo Molnar
2020-10-14 18:21     ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-10-15 20:10       ` Josh Poimboeuf
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 03/25] objtool: Don't autodetect vmlinux.o Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 04/25] tracing: move function tracer options to Kconfig Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 05/25] tracing: add support for objtool mcount Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 06/25] x86, build: use " Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 07/25] treewide: remove DISABLE_LTO Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-14 22:43   ` Kees Cook
2020-10-17  1:46     ` Masahiro Yamada
2020-10-13  0:31 ` Sami Tolvanen [this message]
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 09/25] kbuild: lto: fix module versioning Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 10/25] objtool: Split noinstr validation from --vmlinux Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 11/25] kbuild: lto: postpone objtool Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 12/25] kbuild: lto: limit inlining Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 13/25] kbuild: lto: merge module sections Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-14 22:49   ` Kees Cook
2020-10-20 16:42     ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 14/25] kbuild: lto: remove duplicate dependencies from .mod files Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-14 22:50   ` Kees Cook
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 15/25] init: lto: ensure initcall ordering Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 16/25] init: lto: fix PREL32 relocations Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-14 22:53   ` Kees Cook
2020-10-15  0:12   ` Jann Horn
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 17/25] PCI: Fix PREL32 relocations for LTO Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-14 22:58   ` Kees Cook
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 18/25] modpost: lto: strip .lto from module names Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 19/25] scripts/mod: disable LTO for empty.c Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 20/25] efi/libstub: disable LTO Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-13  0:31 ` [PATCH v6 21/25] drivers/misc/lkdtm: disable LTO for rodata.o Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-13  0:32 ` [PATCH v6 22/25] x86/asm: annotate indirect jumps Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-14 22:46   ` Kees Cook
2020-10-14 23:23   ` Jann Horn
2020-10-15 10:22     ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-10-15 20:39       ` Josh Poimboeuf
2020-10-20 16:45         ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-20 18:52           ` Josh Poimboeuf
2020-10-20 19:24             ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-21  8:56               ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-10-21  9:08                 ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-10-21  9:32                 ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-10-21 21:27                   ` Josh Poimboeuf
2020-10-22  7:25                     ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-10-23 17:48                       ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-23 18:04                         ` Nick Desaulniers
2020-10-21 15:01                 ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-22  0:22                 ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-23 17:36                   ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-11-09 23:11                     ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-11-10  2:29                       ` Josh Poimboeuf
2020-11-10  3:18                         ` Nick Desaulniers
2020-11-10  4:48                         ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-11-10 16:11                           ` Josh Poimboeuf
2020-11-10 17:46                         ` Josh Poimboeuf
2020-11-10 18:59                           ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-11-13 19:54                             ` Josh Poimboeuf
2020-11-13 20:24                               ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-11-13 20:52                                 ` Josh Poimboeuf
2020-11-13 22:34                                 ` Josh Poimboeuf
2020-11-13 22:54                                   ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-11-13 22:56                                     ` Josh Poimboeuf
2020-11-13 23:31                                   ` Sami Tolvanen
2020-11-14  0:49                                     ` Josh Poimboeuf
2020-10-21  9:51             ` Peter Zijlstra
2020-10-21 18:30               ` Josh Poimboeuf
2020-10-13  0:32 ` [PATCH v6 23/25] x86, vdso: disable LTO only for vDSO Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-13  0:32 ` [PATCH v6 24/25] x86, cpu: disable LTO for cpu.c Sami Tolvanen
2020-10-13  0:32 ` [PATCH v6 25/25] x86, build: allow LTO_CLANG and THINLTO to be selected Sami Tolvanen

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