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From: Dave Chinner <>
To: Brian Foster <>
Cc:, Martin Svec <>
Subject: Re: [PATCH 2/3] xfs: push buffer of flush locked dquot to avoid quotacheck deadlock
Date: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 09:55:25 +1000	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <20170410235525.GA12369@dastard> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20170410141521.GB3991@bfoster.bfoster>

On Mon, Apr 10, 2017 at 10:15:21AM -0400, Brian Foster wrote:
> On Mon, Apr 10, 2017 at 03:00:01PM +1000, Dave Chinner wrote:
> > On Fri, Feb 24, 2017 at 02:53:20PM -0500, Brian Foster wrote:
> > > +	/*
> > > +	 * Move the buffer to an empty list and submit. Pass the original list
> > > +	 * as the wait list so delwri submission moves the buf back to it before
> > > +	 * it is submitted (and thus before it is unlocked). This means the
> > > +	 * buffer cannot be placed on another list while we wait for it.
> > > +	 */
> > > +	list_move(&bp->b_list, &submit_list);
> > > +	xfs_buf_unlock(bp);
> > 
> > .... this is safe/racy as we may have just moved it off the delwri
> > queue without changing state, reference counts, etc?
> > 
> Racy with..?

Whatever might possibly manipulate the buffer that thinks it's on a
specific delwri list. We've unlocked it.

As I said, I haven't spend hours thinking this all through, I'm just
throwing out the questions I had....

> The buffer is effectively still on the delwri queue here.
> We've just replaced the caller queue with a local queue to reuse the
> existing submission infrastructure. IOW, we've just changed the queue
> that the buffer is on.

Yes, in theory, but it's not something we every considered would be
done when designing the private delwri queue infrastructure...

> > > +
> > > +	xfs_buf_delwri_submit_buffers(&submit_list, buffer_list);
> > 
> > .... using a caller supplied delwri buffer list as the buffer IO
> > wait list destination is making big assumptions about the internal
> > use of the wait list? e.g that xfs_buf_delwri_submit_buffers() does
> > not initialise the list_head before use...
> > 
> This is the scope at which the wait list is defined/initialized.

It is now - passing in a list that is not empty effectively prevents
us from implementing anything differently in future....

> E.g.,
> _delwri_submit() initializes its local wait list and passes it down for
> _delwri_submit_buffers() to use. This basically ensures that the buffer
> is placed back on the original delwri queue because the latter moves the
> buffer over under lock, before it is submitted for I/O.

But xfs_buf_delwri_submit_buffers() adds a reference count to the
buffer if it's placed on a wait list. but we just moved it back to
the original buffer list. Now I have to look for why that works, and
determine if that was intended behaviour or not.

i.e. _delwri_submit_buffers is being used for more than just moving
the buffer back to the buffer list - there's reference counting
shenanigans going on here, too....

> We could probably use a local wait_list just the same if that is
> preferred, and explicitly add the buffer back from the wait_list to the
> original delwri queue. FWIW, it's not clear to me whether you're asking
> about the use of the wait_list here or indicating preference.

All I'm pointing out is that I don't think the patch is a good
solution, not what the solution should be. I haven't spent the hours
needed to think out a proper solution.

> > .... we should be doing IO submission while holding other things on
> > the delwri list and unknown caller locks?
> > 
> I'm not following... this is effectively a move/submit of a delwri queue
> item to another delwri queue. If the delwri queue is by design a local
> data structure then only one thread should be queue processing at a
> time. Why would this particular action be problematic?

No, no it's not just a "list move". xfs_buf_delwri_submit_buffers()
calls xfs_buf_submit() to start IO on the buffers passed in on the
submit list. We're adding a new IO submission path here....

> Technically, we could rework this into something like a
> delwri_queue_move()/delwri_submit() sequence, but the problem with that
> is we lose the queue-populated state of the buffer for a period of time
> and thus somebody else (i.e., reclaim) can jump in and queue it out from
> underneath the caller. The purpose of this mechanism is to preserve
> original delwri queue ownership of the buffer.

Sure, I understand that, but I still don't think this is the right
thing to be doing.

> > .... we have all the buffer reference counts we need to make this
> > work correctly?
> > 
> AFAICT, we follow the existing delwri queue rules with regard to locking
> and reference counting. A buffer is queued under the buf lock and the
> queue takes a reference on the buffer. Queue submission locks the
> buffer, acquires a wait_list reference and moves to the wait list if one
> is specified and submits the buffer. Buffer I/O completion drops the
> original queue reference. If the wait_list was specified, we cycle the
> buffer lock (to wait for I/O completion), remove from the wait_list and
> drop the wait_list reference.
> The pushbuf() call moves the buffer to the submit_list under the buffer
> lock, which is effectively another local delwri queue. This takes
> ownership of the original delwri queue reference. Queue submission
> occurs as above: the buffer is moved to the wait_list, an associated
> wait_list reference is acquired and the buffer is submitted. I/O
> completion drops the original delwri queue reference as before, so we
> are in the same state as delwri_submit() up through I/O completion.
> We again cycle the buf lock to wait on I/O completion and process an
> error. Rather than remove from the wait_list and drop the reference,
> however, pushbuf() has the buffer back on the original delwri queue with
> an associated reference. The only explicit state change here is the
> DELWRI_Q flag, which is reset.
> So am I missing something here with regard to proper reference
> counting..? If so, please elaborate and I'll try to dig into it.

IOWs, your abusing the waitlist reference count added deep inside
xfs_buf_delwri_submit_buffers() to handle the fact
that the IO submission removes the delwri queue reference count that
the buffer had on entry to the function, but still needs on exit to
the function.

I guarantee we'll break this in future - it's too subtle and fragile
for core infrastructure. Also, there's no comments to explain any of
these games being played, which makes it even less maintainable...

> > > +	/*
> > > +	 * Lock the buffer to wait for I/O completion. It's already held on the
> > > +	 * original list, so all we have to do is reset the delwri queue flag
> > > +	 * that was cleared by delwri submission.
> > > +	 */
> > > +	xfs_buf_lock(bp);
> > > +	error = bp->b_error;
> > > +	bp->b_flags |= _XBF_DELWRI_Q;
> > > +	xfs_buf_unlock(bp);
> > 
> > .... this is racy w.r.t. the buffer going back onto the
> > buffer list without holding the buffer lock, or that the
> > _XBF_DELWRI_Q setting/clearing is not atomic w.r.t. the delwri queue
> > manipulations (i.e. can now be on the delwri list but not have
> > _XBF_DELWRI_Q set)?
> > 
> The buffer has been put back on the original delwri queue (by
> _delwri_submit_buffers()) before the lock was dropped. Using the delwri
> queue as the wait_list does mean that the flag might not be set until
> the delwri queue processing is done and we have returned to the caller.
> If another delwri queue occurs, the flag may be reset but the buffer
> cannot be added to another queue, which is what we want (as noted
> above).

Yes, I know this is what happens. My point is that the internal
_XBF_DELWRI_Q no longer indicates that a buffer is on a delwri queue
(i.e. that bp->b_list is valid). IOWs, if we want to check a buffer
is on a delwri queue, we can no longer just check the flag, we have
to check both the flag and list_empty(bp->b_list) because they are
no longer atomically updated.

To me this is a design rule violation, regardless of whether the
code works or not...

> (I'm not sure why delwri_queue() returns true in that case, but that's a
> separate issue.)
> > .... the error is left on the buffer so it gets tripped over when
> > it is next accessed?
> > 
> Same as delwri_submit(). IIUC, errors are left on buffers by design and
> cleared on a subsequemt I/O submission.

That doesn't mean it's the right thing to do here. Think about how
the error shold be handled in this case, don't copy something from a
bulk IO submission interface....

> > > +	/*
> > > +	 * The only way the dquot is already flush locked by the time quotacheck
> > > +	 * gets here is if reclaim flushed it before the dqadjust walk dirtied
> > > +	 * it for the final time. Quotacheck collects all dquot bufs in the
> > > +	 * local delwri queue before dquots are dirtied, so reclaim can't have
> > > +	 * possibly queued it for I/O. The only way out is to push the buffer to
> > > +	 * cycle the flush lock.
> > > +	 */
> > > +	if (!xfs_dqflock_nowait(dqp)) {
> > > +		/* buf is pinned in-core by delwri list */
> > > +		DEFINE_SINGLE_BUF_MAP(map, dqp->q_blkno,
> > > +				      mp->m_quotainfo->qi_dqchunklen);
> > > +		bp = _xfs_buf_find(mp->m_ddev_targp, &map, 1, 0, NULL);
> > > +		if (!bp) {
> > > +			error = -EINVAL;
> > > +			goto out_unlock;
> > > +		}
> > > +
> > > +		/* delwri_pushbuf drops the buf lock */
> > > +		xfs_buf_delwri_pushbuf(bp, buffer_list);
> > 
> > Ummm - you threw away the returned error....
> > 
> The I/O is going to be retried, but I'll fix it to just return from
> here.
> > > +		xfs_buf_rele(bp);
> > 
> > And despite the comment, I think this is simply wrong. We try really
> > hard to maintain balanced locking, and as such xfs_buf_relse() is
> > what goes along with _xfs_buf_find(). i.e. we are returned a locked
> > buffer with a reference by xfs_buf_find(), but xfs_buf_rele() only
> > drops the reference.
> > 
> I'm not quite following if you are saying the locking is unbalanced or
> it simply looks that way. If the former, can you please elaborate?

It's not obviously correct, which to me is a bug. If I read this
code, you're forcing me to go read more code to work out why it is
correct because it doesn't follow the expected patterns. And then
the reader disappears down a hole for hours trying to work out how
this code actually works.

> Otherwise, we can probably have pushbuf() return with the buffer lock
> held so the caller remains responsible for the lock and reference it
> acquired.
> > So if I look at this code in isolation, it looks like it leaks a
> > buffer lock, and now I have to go read other code to understand why
> > it doesn't and I'm left to wonder why it was implemented this
> > way....
> > 
> Thanks for taking the time to send feedback. FWIW, I take most of these
> questions as "things one would have to verify in order to review this
> patch if one were not on vacation" :P as opposed to pointing things out
> as explicitly broken.

Keep in mind that while the code /might work/, that doesn't mean it
can be merged. The more I look at the patch and think about it, the
more strongly I feel that we need to "go back to the drawing board
and try again".

So, rather than just being a negative prick that says no and doesn't
provide any real help, how about considering this line of

We hold the buffer locked, the dquot is locked and the dquot is
flush locked already, right? We know the IO has not been submitted
because we have the buffer lock and the dquot is still flush locked,
which means /some/ dirty dquot data is already in the buffer.

So why can't we just modify the dquot in the buffer?  We already
hold all the locks needed to guarantee exclusive access to the dquot
and buffer, and they are all we hold when we do the initial flush to
the buffer. So why do we need to do IO to unlock the dquot flush
lock when we could just rewrite before we submit the buffer for IO?

Indeed, let's go look at inodes for an example of this, 
xfs_ifree_cluster() to be precise:

                 * We obtain and lock the backing buffer first in the process    
                 * here, as we have to ensure that any dirty inode that we       
                 * can't get the flush lock on is attached to the buffer.        
                 * If we scan the in-memory inodes first, then buffer IO can     
                 * complete before we get a lock on it, and hence we may fail    
                 * to mark all the active inodes on the buffer stale.            
                 * Walk the inodes already attached to the buffer and mark them  
                 * stale. These will all have the flush locks held, so an        
                 * in-memory inode walk can't lock them. By marking them all     
                 * stale first, we will not attempt to lock them in the loop     
                 * below as the XFS_ISTALE flag will be set.                     
                 * For each inode in memory attempt to add it to the inode       
                 * buffer and set it up for being staled on buffer IO            
                 * completion.  This is safe as we've locked out tail pushing    
                 * and flushing by locking the buffer.                           
                 * We have already marked every inode that was part of a         
                 * transaction stale above, which means there is no point in     
                 * even trying to lock them.                                     

IOWs, what we have here is precendence for modifying the flush
locked objects attached to a buffer after first locking the buffer.
dquots have the same transaction/flush model as inodes, so I'm
pretty sure this will lead to the simplest, cleanest way to avoid
this deadlock....


Dave Chinner

  reply	other threads:[~2017-04-10 23:55 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 26+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2017-02-24 19:53 [PATCH v2 0/3] xfs: quotacheck vs. dquot reclaim deadlock Brian Foster
2017-02-24 19:53 ` [PATCH 1/3] xfs: fix up quotacheck buffer list error handling Brian Foster
2017-04-06 22:39   ` Darrick J. Wong
2017-04-07 12:02     ` Brian Foster
2017-04-07 18:20       ` Darrick J. Wong
2017-04-07 18:38         ` Brian Foster
2017-04-10  4:18   ` Dave Chinner
2017-04-10 14:13     ` Brian Foster
2017-02-24 19:53 ` [PATCH 2/3] xfs: push buffer of flush locked dquot to avoid quotacheck deadlock Brian Foster
2017-04-06 22:34   ` Darrick J. Wong
2017-04-07 12:06     ` Brian Foster
2017-04-07 20:07       ` Darrick J. Wong
2017-04-10 14:19         ` Brian Foster
2017-04-10  5:00   ` Dave Chinner
2017-04-10 14:15     ` Brian Foster
2017-04-10 23:55       ` Dave Chinner [this message]
2017-04-11 14:53         ` Brian Foster
2017-04-18  2:35           ` Dave Chinner
2017-04-18 13:55             ` Brian Foster
2017-04-19  2:46               ` Dave Chinner
2017-04-19 19:55                 ` Darrick J. Wong
2017-04-19 20:46                   ` Brian Foster
2017-04-21 12:18                     ` Brian Foster
2017-04-19 20:40                 ` Brian Foster
2017-04-11 12:50     ` Brian Foster
2017-02-24 19:53 ` [PATCH 3/3] [RFC] xfs: release buffer list after quotacheck buf reset Brian Foster

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