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* [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller
@ 2019-06-14  1:56 Tejun Heo
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 01/10] blkcg: pass @q and @blkcg into blkcg_pol_alloc_pd_fn() Tejun Heo
                   ` (10 more replies)
  0 siblings, 11 replies; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-06-14  1:56 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: axboe, newella, clm, josef, dennisz, lizefan, hannes
  Cc: linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups, ast, daniel,
	kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf

One challenge of controlling IO resources is the lack of trivially
observable cost metric.  This is distinguished from CPU and memory
where wallclock time and the number of bytes can serve as accurate
enough approximations.

Bandwidth and iops are the most commonly used metrics for IO devices
but depending on the type and specifics of the device, different IO
patterns easily lead to multiple orders of magnitude variations
rendering them useless for the purpose of IO capacity distribution.
While on-device time, with a lot of clutches, could serve as a useful
approximation for non-queued rotational devices, this is no longer
viable with modern devices, even the rotational ones.

While there is no cost metric we can trivially observe, it isn't a
complete mystery.  For example, on a rotational device, seek cost
dominates while a contiguous transfer contributes a smaller amount
proportional to the size.  If we can characterize at least the
relative costs of these different types of IOs, it should be possible
to implement a reasonable work-conserving proportional IO resource
distribution.

This patchset implements IO cost model based work-conserving
proportional controller.  It currently has a simple linear cost model
builtin where each IO is classified as sequential or random and given
a base cost accordingly and additional size-proportional cost is added
on top.  Each IO is given a cost based on the model and the controller
issues IOs for each cgroup according to their hierarchical weight.

By default, the controller adapts its overall IO rate so that it
doesn't build up buffer bloat in the request_queue layer, which
guarantees that the controller doesn't lose significant amount of
total work.  However, this may not provide sufficient differentiation
as the underlying device may have a deep queue and not be fair in how
the queued IOs are serviced.  The controller provides extra QoS
control knobs which allow tightening control feedback loop as
necessary.

For more details on the control mechanism, implementation and
interface, please refer to the comment at the top of
block/blk-ioweight.c and Documentation/admin-guide/cgroup-v2.rst
changes in the "blkcg: implement blk-ioweight" patch.

Here are some test results.  Each test run goes through the following
combinations with each combination running for a minute.  All tests
are performed against regular files on btrfs w/ deadline as the IO
scheduler.  Random IOs are direct w/ queue depth of 64.  Sequential
are normal buffered IOs.

	high priority (weight=500)	low priority (weight=100)

	Rand read			None
	ditto				Rand read
	ditto				Seq  read
	ditto				Rand write
	ditto				Seq  write
	Seq  read			None
	ditto				Rand read
	ditto				Seq  read
	ditto				Rand write
	ditto				Seq  write
	Rand write			None
	ditto				Rand read
	ditto				Seq  read
	ditto				Rand write
	ditto				Seq  write
	Seq  write			None
	ditto				Rand read
	ditto				Seq  read
	ditto				Rand write
	ditto				Seq  write

* 7200RPM SATA hard disk
  * No IO control
    https://photos.app.goo.gl/1KBHn7ykpC1LXRkB8
  * ioweight, QoS: None
    https://photos.app.goo.gl/MLNQGxCtBQ8wAmjm7
  * ioweight, QoS: rpct=95.00 rlat=40000 wpct=95.00 wlat=40000 min=25.00 max=200.00
    https://photos.app.goo.gl/XqXHm3Mkbm9w6Db46
* NCQ-blacklisted SATA SSD (QD==1)
  * No IO control
    https://photos.app.goo.gl/wCTXeu2uJ6LYL4pk8
  * ioweight, QoS: None
    https://photos.app.goo.gl/T2HedKD2sywQgj7R9
  * ioweight, QoS: rpct=95.00 rlat=20000 wpct=95.00 wlat=20000 min=50.00 max=200.00
    https://photos.app.goo.gl/urBTV8XQc1UqPJJw7
* SATA SSD (QD==32)
  * No IO control
    https://photos.app.goo.gl/TjEVykuVudSQcryh6
  * ioweight, QoS: None
    https://photos.app.goo.gl/iyQBsky7bmM54Xiq7
  * ioweight, QoS: rpct=95.00 rlat=10000 wpct=95.00 wlat=20000 min=50.00 max=400.00
    https://photos.app.goo.gl/q1a6URLDxPLMrnHy5

Even without explicit QoS configuration, read-heavy scenarios can
obtain acceptable differentiation.  However, when write-heavy, the
deep buffering on the device side makes it difficult to maintain
control.  With QoS parameters set, the differentiation is acceptable
across all combinations.

The implementation comes with default cost model parameters which are
selected automatically which should provide acceptable behavior across
most common devices.  The parameters for hdd and consumer-grade SSDs
seem pretty robust.  The default parameter set and selection criteria
for highend SSDs might need further adjustments.

It is fairly easy to configure the QoS parameters and, if needed, cost
model coefficients.  We'll follow up with tooling and further
documentation.  Also, the last RFC patch in the series implements
support for bpf-based custom cost function.  Originally we thought
that we'd need per-device-type cost functions but the simple linear
model now seem good enough to cover all common device classes.  In
case custom cost functions become necessary, we can fully develop the
bpf based extension and also easily add different builtin cost models.

Andy Newell did the heavy lifting of analyzing IO workloads and device
characteristics, exploring various cost models, determining the
default model and parameters to use.

Josef Bacik implemented a prototype which explored the use of
different types of cost metrics including on-device time and Andy's
linear model.

This patchset is on top of
  cgroup/for-5.3
    git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/cgroup.git for-5.3
+ [PATCHSET block/for-linus] Assorted blkcg fixes
    http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190613223041.606735-1-tj@kernel.org
+ [PATCHSET btrfs/for-next] btrfs: fix cgroup writeback support
    http://20190614003350.1178444-1-tj@kernel.org

This patchset contains the following 10 patches.

 0001-blkcg-pass-q-and-blkcg-into-blkcg_pol_alloc_pd_fn.patch
 0002-blkcg-make-cpd_init_fn-optional.patch
 0003-blkcg-separate-blkcg_conf_get_disk-out-of-blkg_conf_.patch
 0004-block-rq_qos-add-rq_qos_merge.patch
 0005-block-rq_qos-implement-rq_qos_ops-queue_depth_change.patch
 0006-blkcg-s-RQ_QOS_CGROUP-RQ_QOS_LATENCY.patch
 0007-blk-mq-add-optional-request-pre_start_time_ns.patch
 0008-blkcg-implement-blk-ioweight.patch
 0009-blkcg-add-tools-cgroup-monitor_ioweight.py.patch
 0010-RFC-blkcg-implement-BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST.patch

0001-0007 are prep patches.
0008 implements blk-ioweight.
0009 adds monitoring script.
0010 is the RFC patch for BPF cost function.

The patchset is also available in the following git branch.

 git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/cgroup.git review-iow

diffstat follows, Thanks.

 Documentation/admin-guide/cgroup-v2.rst                |   93 
 block/Kconfig                                          |   12 
 block/Makefile                                         |    1 
 block/bfq-cgroup.c                                     |    5 
 block/blk-cgroup.c                                     |   71 
 block/blk-core.c                                       |    4 
 block/blk-iolatency.c                                  |    8 
 block/blk-ioweight.c                                   | 2509 +++++++++++++++++
 block/blk-mq.c                                         |   11 
 block/blk-rq-qos.c                                     |   18 
 block/blk-rq-qos.h                                     |   28 
 block/blk-settings.c                                   |    2 
 block/blk-throttle.c                                   |    6 
 block/blk-wbt.c                                        |   18 
 block/blk-wbt.h                                        |    4 
 block/blk.h                                            |    8 
 block/ioctl.c                                          |    4 
 include/linux/blk-cgroup.h                             |    4 
 include/linux/blk_types.h                              |    3 
 include/linux/blkdev.h                                 |    7 
 include/linux/bpf_types.h                              |    3 
 include/trace/events/ioweight.h                        |  174 +
 include/uapi/linux/bpf.h                               |   11 
 include/uapi/linux/fs.h                                |    2 
 tools/bpf/bpftool/feature.c                            |    3 
 tools/bpf/bpftool/main.h                               |    1 
 tools/cgroup/monitor_ioweight.py                       |  264 +
 tools/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h                         |   11 
 tools/include/uapi/linux/fs.h                          |    2 
 tools/lib/bpf/libbpf.c                                 |    2 
 tools/lib/bpf/libbpf_probes.c                          |    1 
 tools/testing/selftests/bpf/Makefile                   |    2 
 tools/testing/selftests/bpf/iocost_ctrl.c              |   43 
 tools/testing/selftests/bpf/progs/iocost_linear_prog.c |   52 
 34 files changed, 3333 insertions(+), 54 deletions(-)

--
tejun


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 01/10] blkcg: pass @q and @blkcg into blkcg_pol_alloc_pd_fn()
  2019-06-14  1:56 [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller Tejun Heo
@ 2019-06-14  1:56 ` Tejun Heo
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 02/10] blkcg: make ->cpd_init_fn() optional Tejun Heo
                   ` (9 subsequent siblings)
  10 siblings, 0 replies; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-06-14  1:56 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: axboe, newella, clm, josef, dennisz, lizefan, hannes
  Cc: linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups, ast, daniel,
	kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf, Tejun Heo

Instead of @node, pass in @q and @blkcg so that the alloc function has
more context.  This doesn't cause any behavior change and will be used
by io.weight implementation.

Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
---
 block/bfq-cgroup.c         | 5 +++--
 block/blk-cgroup.c         | 6 +++---
 block/blk-iolatency.c      | 6 ++++--
 block/blk-throttle.c       | 6 ++++--
 include/linux/blk-cgroup.h | 3 ++-
 5 files changed, 16 insertions(+), 10 deletions(-)

diff --git a/block/bfq-cgroup.c b/block/bfq-cgroup.c
index b3796a40a61a..4193172ad20f 100644
--- a/block/bfq-cgroup.c
+++ b/block/bfq-cgroup.c
@@ -425,11 +425,12 @@ static void bfq_cpd_free(struct blkcg_policy_data *cpd)
 	kfree(cpd_to_bfqgd(cpd));
 }
 
-static struct blkg_policy_data *bfq_pd_alloc(gfp_t gfp, int node)
+static struct blkg_policy_data *bfq_pd_alloc(gfp_t gfp, struct request_queue *q,
+					     struct blkcg *blkcg)
 {
 	struct bfq_group *bfqg;
 
-	bfqg = kzalloc_node(sizeof(*bfqg), gfp, node);
+	bfqg = kzalloc_node(sizeof(*bfqg), gfp, q->node);
 	if (!bfqg)
 		return NULL;
 
diff --git a/block/blk-cgroup.c b/block/blk-cgroup.c
index 238d5d2d0691..30d3a0fbccac 100644
--- a/block/blk-cgroup.c
+++ b/block/blk-cgroup.c
@@ -174,7 +174,7 @@ static struct blkcg_gq *blkg_alloc(struct blkcg *blkcg, struct request_queue *q,
 			continue;
 
 		/* alloc per-policy data and attach it to blkg */
-		pd = pol->pd_alloc_fn(gfp_mask, q->node);
+		pd = pol->pd_alloc_fn(gfp_mask, q, blkcg);
 		if (!pd)
 			goto err_free;
 
@@ -1405,7 +1405,7 @@ int blkcg_activate_policy(struct request_queue *q,
 		blk_mq_freeze_queue(q);
 pd_prealloc:
 	if (!pd_prealloc) {
-		pd_prealloc = pol->pd_alloc_fn(GFP_KERNEL, q->node);
+		pd_prealloc = pol->pd_alloc_fn(GFP_KERNEL, q, &blkcg_root);
 		if (!pd_prealloc) {
 			ret = -ENOMEM;
 			goto out_bypass_end;
@@ -1421,7 +1421,7 @@ int blkcg_activate_policy(struct request_queue *q,
 		if (blkg->pd[pol->plid])
 			continue;
 
-		pd = pol->pd_alloc_fn(GFP_NOWAIT | __GFP_NOWARN, q->node);
+		pd = pol->pd_alloc_fn(GFP_NOWAIT | __GFP_NOWARN, q, &blkcg_root);
 		if (!pd)
 			swap(pd, pd_prealloc);
 		if (!pd) {
diff --git a/block/blk-iolatency.c b/block/blk-iolatency.c
index 17896bb3aaf2..fa47a6485725 100644
--- a/block/blk-iolatency.c
+++ b/block/blk-iolatency.c
@@ -950,11 +950,13 @@ static size_t iolatency_pd_stat(struct blkg_policy_data *pd, char *buf,
 }
 
 
-static struct blkg_policy_data *iolatency_pd_alloc(gfp_t gfp, int node)
+static struct blkg_policy_data *iolatency_pd_alloc(gfp_t gfp,
+						   struct request_queue *q,
+						   struct blkcg *blkcg)
 {
 	struct iolatency_grp *iolat;
 
-	iolat = kzalloc_node(sizeof(*iolat), gfp, node);
+	iolat = kzalloc_node(sizeof(*iolat), gfp, q->node);
 	if (!iolat)
 		return NULL;
 	iolat->stats = __alloc_percpu_gfp(sizeof(struct latency_stat),
diff --git a/block/blk-throttle.c b/block/blk-throttle.c
index 9ea7c0ecad10..3bb69a17c4b3 100644
--- a/block/blk-throttle.c
+++ b/block/blk-throttle.c
@@ -478,12 +478,14 @@ static void throtl_service_queue_init(struct throtl_service_queue *sq)
 	timer_setup(&sq->pending_timer, throtl_pending_timer_fn, 0);
 }
 
-static struct blkg_policy_data *throtl_pd_alloc(gfp_t gfp, int node)
+static struct blkg_policy_data *throtl_pd_alloc(gfp_t gfp,
+						struct request_queue *q,
+						struct blkcg *blkcg)
 {
 	struct throtl_grp *tg;
 	int rw;
 
-	tg = kzalloc_node(sizeof(*tg), gfp, node);
+	tg = kzalloc_node(sizeof(*tg), gfp, q->node);
 	if (!tg)
 		return NULL;
 
diff --git a/include/linux/blk-cgroup.h b/include/linux/blk-cgroup.h
index ffb2f88e87c6..1ed27977f88f 100644
--- a/include/linux/blk-cgroup.h
+++ b/include/linux/blk-cgroup.h
@@ -151,7 +151,8 @@ typedef struct blkcg_policy_data *(blkcg_pol_alloc_cpd_fn)(gfp_t gfp);
 typedef void (blkcg_pol_init_cpd_fn)(struct blkcg_policy_data *cpd);
 typedef void (blkcg_pol_free_cpd_fn)(struct blkcg_policy_data *cpd);
 typedef void (blkcg_pol_bind_cpd_fn)(struct blkcg_policy_data *cpd);
-typedef struct blkg_policy_data *(blkcg_pol_alloc_pd_fn)(gfp_t gfp, int node);
+typedef struct blkg_policy_data *(blkcg_pol_alloc_pd_fn)(gfp_t gfp,
+				struct request_queue *q, struct blkcg *blkcg);
 typedef void (blkcg_pol_init_pd_fn)(struct blkg_policy_data *pd);
 typedef void (blkcg_pol_online_pd_fn)(struct blkg_policy_data *pd);
 typedef void (blkcg_pol_offline_pd_fn)(struct blkg_policy_data *pd);
-- 
2.17.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 02/10] blkcg: make ->cpd_init_fn() optional
  2019-06-14  1:56 [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller Tejun Heo
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 01/10] blkcg: pass @q and @blkcg into blkcg_pol_alloc_pd_fn() Tejun Heo
@ 2019-06-14  1:56 ` Tejun Heo
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 03/10] blkcg: separate blkcg_conf_get_disk() out of blkg_conf_prep() Tejun Heo
                   ` (8 subsequent siblings)
  10 siblings, 0 replies; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-06-14  1:56 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: axboe, newella, clm, josef, dennisz, lizefan, hannes
  Cc: linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups, ast, daniel,
	kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf, Tejun Heo

For policies which can do enough initialization from ->cpd_alloc_fn(),
make ->cpd_init_fn() optional.

Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
---
 block/blk-cgroup.c | 3 ++-
 1 file changed, 2 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)

diff --git a/block/blk-cgroup.c b/block/blk-cgroup.c
index 30d3a0fbccac..60ad9b96e6eb 100644
--- a/block/blk-cgroup.c
+++ b/block/blk-cgroup.c
@@ -1534,7 +1534,8 @@ int blkcg_policy_register(struct blkcg_policy *pol)
 			blkcg->cpd[pol->plid] = cpd;
 			cpd->blkcg = blkcg;
 			cpd->plid = pol->plid;
-			pol->cpd_init_fn(cpd);
+			if (pol->cpd_init_fn)
+				pol->cpd_init_fn(cpd);
 		}
 	}
 
-- 
2.17.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 03/10] blkcg: separate blkcg_conf_get_disk() out of blkg_conf_prep()
  2019-06-14  1:56 [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller Tejun Heo
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 01/10] blkcg: pass @q and @blkcg into blkcg_pol_alloc_pd_fn() Tejun Heo
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 02/10] blkcg: make ->cpd_init_fn() optional Tejun Heo
@ 2019-06-14  1:56 ` Tejun Heo
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 04/10] block/rq_qos: add rq_qos_merge() Tejun Heo
                   ` (7 subsequent siblings)
  10 siblings, 0 replies; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-06-14  1:56 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: axboe, newella, clm, josef, dennisz, lizefan, hannes
  Cc: linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups, ast, daniel,
	kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf, Tejun Heo

Separate out blkcg_conf_get_disk() so that it can be used by blkcg
policy interface file input parsers before the policy is actually
enabled.  This doesn't introduce any functional changes.

Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
---
 block/blk-cgroup.c         | 62 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++------------
 include/linux/blk-cgroup.h |  1 +
 2 files changed, 44 insertions(+), 19 deletions(-)

diff --git a/block/blk-cgroup.c b/block/blk-cgroup.c
index 60ad9b96e6eb..b66ee908db7c 100644
--- a/block/blk-cgroup.c
+++ b/block/blk-cgroup.c
@@ -809,6 +809,44 @@ static struct blkcg_gq *blkg_lookup_check(struct blkcg *blkcg,
 	return __blkg_lookup(blkcg, q, true /* update_hint */);
 }
 
+/**
+ * blkg_conf_prep - parse and prepare for per-blkg config update
+ * @inputp: input string pointer
+ *
+ * Parse the device node prefix part, MAJ:MIN, of per-blkg config update
+ * from @input and get and return the matching gendisk.  *@inputp is
+ * updated to point past the device node prefix.  Returns an ERR_PTR()
+ * value on error.
+ *
+ * Use this function iff blkg_conf_prep() can't be used for some reason.
+ */
+struct gendisk *blkcg_conf_get_disk(char **inputp)
+{
+	char *input = *inputp;
+	unsigned int major, minor;
+	struct gendisk *disk;
+	int key_len, part;
+
+	if (sscanf(input, "%u:%u%n", &major, &minor, &key_len) != 2)
+		return ERR_PTR(-EINVAL);
+
+	input += key_len;
+	if (!isspace(*input))
+		return ERR_PTR(-EINVAL);
+	input = skip_spaces(input);
+
+	disk = get_gendisk(MKDEV(major, minor), &part);
+	if (!disk)
+		return ERR_PTR(-ENODEV);
+	if (part) {
+		put_disk_and_module(disk);
+		return ERR_PTR(-ENODEV);
+	}
+
+	*inputp = input;
+	return disk;
+}
+
 /**
  * blkg_conf_prep - parse and prepare for per-blkg config update
  * @blkcg: target block cgroup
@@ -828,25 +866,11 @@ int blkg_conf_prep(struct blkcg *blkcg, const struct blkcg_policy *pol,
 	struct gendisk *disk;
 	struct request_queue *q;
 	struct blkcg_gq *blkg;
-	unsigned int major, minor;
-	int key_len, part, ret;
-	char *body;
-
-	if (sscanf(input, "%u:%u%n", &major, &minor, &key_len) != 2)
-		return -EINVAL;
-
-	body = input + key_len;
-	if (!isspace(*body))
-		return -EINVAL;
-	body = skip_spaces(body);
+	int ret;
 
-	disk = get_gendisk(MKDEV(major, minor), &part);
-	if (!disk)
-		return -ENODEV;
-	if (part) {
-		ret = -ENODEV;
-		goto fail;
-	}
+	disk = blkcg_conf_get_disk(&input);
+	if (IS_ERR(disk))
+		return PTR_ERR(disk);
 
 	q = disk->queue;
 
@@ -912,7 +936,7 @@ int blkg_conf_prep(struct blkcg *blkcg, const struct blkcg_policy *pol,
 success:
 	ctx->disk = disk;
 	ctx->blkg = blkg;
-	ctx->body = body;
+	ctx->body = input;
 	return 0;
 
 fail_unlock:
diff --git a/include/linux/blk-cgroup.h b/include/linux/blk-cgroup.h
index 1ed27977f88f..674c482ec689 100644
--- a/include/linux/blk-cgroup.h
+++ b/include/linux/blk-cgroup.h
@@ -231,6 +231,7 @@ struct blkg_conf_ctx {
 	char				*body;
 };
 
+struct gendisk *blkcg_conf_get_disk(char **inputp);
 int blkg_conf_prep(struct blkcg *blkcg, const struct blkcg_policy *pol,
 		   char *input, struct blkg_conf_ctx *ctx);
 void blkg_conf_finish(struct blkg_conf_ctx *ctx);
-- 
2.17.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 04/10] block/rq_qos: add rq_qos_merge()
  2019-06-14  1:56 [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller Tejun Heo
                   ` (2 preceding siblings ...)
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 03/10] blkcg: separate blkcg_conf_get_disk() out of blkg_conf_prep() Tejun Heo
@ 2019-06-14  1:56 ` Tejun Heo
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 05/10] block/rq_qos: implement rq_qos_ops->queue_depth_changed() Tejun Heo
                   ` (6 subsequent siblings)
  10 siblings, 0 replies; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-06-14  1:56 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: axboe, newella, clm, josef, dennisz, lizefan, hannes
  Cc: linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups, ast, daniel,
	kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf, Tejun Heo

Add a merge hook for rq_qos.  This will be used by io.weight.

Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
---
 block/blk-core.c   | 4 ++++
 block/blk-rq-qos.c | 9 +++++++++
 block/blk-rq-qos.h | 9 +++++++++
 3 files changed, 22 insertions(+)

diff --git a/block/blk-core.c b/block/blk-core.c
index aad32071fa67..1dcf679c4b44 100644
--- a/block/blk-core.c
+++ b/block/blk-core.c
@@ -559,6 +559,7 @@ bool bio_attempt_back_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request *req,
 		return false;
 
 	trace_block_bio_backmerge(q, req, bio);
+	rq_qos_merge(q, req, bio);
 
 	if ((req->cmd_flags & REQ_FAILFAST_MASK) != ff)
 		blk_rq_set_mixed_merge(req);
@@ -580,6 +581,7 @@ bool bio_attempt_front_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request *req,
 		return false;
 
 	trace_block_bio_frontmerge(q, req, bio);
+	rq_qos_merge(q, req, bio);
 
 	if ((req->cmd_flags & REQ_FAILFAST_MASK) != ff)
 		blk_rq_set_mixed_merge(req);
@@ -605,6 +607,8 @@ bool bio_attempt_discard_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request *req,
 	    blk_rq_get_max_sectors(req, blk_rq_pos(req)))
 		goto no_merge;
 
+	rq_qos_merge(q, req, bio);
+
 	req->biotail->bi_next = bio;
 	req->biotail = bio;
 	req->__data_len += bio->bi_iter.bi_size;
diff --git a/block/blk-rq-qos.c b/block/blk-rq-qos.c
index 659ccb8b693f..7debcaf1ee53 100644
--- a/block/blk-rq-qos.c
+++ b/block/blk-rq-qos.c
@@ -83,6 +83,15 @@ void __rq_qos_track(struct rq_qos *rqos, struct request *rq, struct bio *bio)
 	} while (rqos);
 }
 
+void __rq_qos_merge(struct rq_qos *rqos, struct request *rq, struct bio *bio)
+{
+	do {
+		if (rqos->ops->merge)
+			rqos->ops->merge(rqos, rq, bio);
+		rqos = rqos->next;
+	} while (rqos);
+}
+
 void __rq_qos_done_bio(struct rq_qos *rqos, struct bio *bio)
 {
 	do {
diff --git a/block/blk-rq-qos.h b/block/blk-rq-qos.h
index 2300e038b9fa..8e426a8505b6 100644
--- a/block/blk-rq-qos.h
+++ b/block/blk-rq-qos.h
@@ -35,6 +35,7 @@ struct rq_qos {
 struct rq_qos_ops {
 	void (*throttle)(struct rq_qos *, struct bio *);
 	void (*track)(struct rq_qos *, struct request *, struct bio *);
+	void (*merge)(struct rq_qos *, struct request *, struct bio *);
 	void (*issue)(struct rq_qos *, struct request *);
 	void (*requeue)(struct rq_qos *, struct request *);
 	void (*done)(struct rq_qos *, struct request *);
@@ -135,6 +136,7 @@ void __rq_qos_issue(struct rq_qos *rqos, struct request *rq);
 void __rq_qos_requeue(struct rq_qos *rqos, struct request *rq);
 void __rq_qos_throttle(struct rq_qos *rqos, struct bio *bio);
 void __rq_qos_track(struct rq_qos *rqos, struct request *rq, struct bio *bio);
+void __rq_qos_merge(struct rq_qos *rqos, struct request *rq, struct bio *bio);
 void __rq_qos_done_bio(struct rq_qos *rqos, struct bio *bio);
 
 static inline void rq_qos_cleanup(struct request_queue *q, struct bio *bio)
@@ -185,6 +187,13 @@ static inline void rq_qos_track(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
 		__rq_qos_track(q->rq_qos, rq, bio);
 }
 
+static inline void rq_qos_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
+				struct bio *bio)
+{
+	if (q->rq_qos)
+		__rq_qos_merge(q->rq_qos, rq, bio);
+}
+
 void rq_qos_exit(struct request_queue *);
 
 #endif
-- 
2.17.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 05/10] block/rq_qos: implement rq_qos_ops->queue_depth_changed()
  2019-06-14  1:56 [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller Tejun Heo
                   ` (3 preceding siblings ...)
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 04/10] block/rq_qos: add rq_qos_merge() Tejun Heo
@ 2019-06-14  1:56 ` Tejun Heo
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 06/10] blkcg: s/RQ_QOS_CGROUP/RQ_QOS_LATENCY/ Tejun Heo
                   ` (5 subsequent siblings)
  10 siblings, 0 replies; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-06-14  1:56 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: axboe, newella, clm, josef, dennisz, lizefan, hannes
  Cc: linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups, ast, daniel,
	kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf, Tejun Heo

wbt already gets queue depth changed notification through
wbt_set_queue_depth().  Generalize it into
rq_qos_ops->queue_depth_changed() so that other rq_qos policies can
easily hook into the events too.

Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
---
 block/blk-rq-qos.c   |  9 +++++++++
 block/blk-rq-qos.h   |  8 ++++++++
 block/blk-settings.c |  2 +-
 block/blk-wbt.c      | 18 ++++++++----------
 block/blk-wbt.h      |  4 ----
 5 files changed, 26 insertions(+), 15 deletions(-)

diff --git a/block/blk-rq-qos.c b/block/blk-rq-qos.c
index 7debcaf1ee53..fb11652348fc 100644
--- a/block/blk-rq-qos.c
+++ b/block/blk-rq-qos.c
@@ -101,6 +101,15 @@ void __rq_qos_done_bio(struct rq_qos *rqos, struct bio *bio)
 	} while (rqos);
 }
 
+void __rq_qos_queue_depth_changed(struct rq_qos *rqos)
+{
+	do {
+		if (rqos->ops->queue_depth_changed)
+			rqos->ops->queue_depth_changed(rqos);
+		rqos = rqos->next;
+	} while (rqos);
+}
+
 /*
  * Return true, if we can't increase the depth further by scaling
  */
diff --git a/block/blk-rq-qos.h b/block/blk-rq-qos.h
index 8e426a8505b6..e15b6907b76d 100644
--- a/block/blk-rq-qos.h
+++ b/block/blk-rq-qos.h
@@ -41,6 +41,7 @@ struct rq_qos_ops {
 	void (*done)(struct rq_qos *, struct request *);
 	void (*done_bio)(struct rq_qos *, struct bio *);
 	void (*cleanup)(struct rq_qos *, struct bio *);
+	void (*queue_depth_changed)(struct rq_qos *);
 	void (*exit)(struct rq_qos *);
 	const struct blk_mq_debugfs_attr *debugfs_attrs;
 };
@@ -138,6 +139,7 @@ void __rq_qos_throttle(struct rq_qos *rqos, struct bio *bio);
 void __rq_qos_track(struct rq_qos *rqos, struct request *rq, struct bio *bio);
 void __rq_qos_merge(struct rq_qos *rqos, struct request *rq, struct bio *bio);
 void __rq_qos_done_bio(struct rq_qos *rqos, struct bio *bio);
+void __rq_qos_queue_depth_changed(struct rq_qos *rqos);
 
 static inline void rq_qos_cleanup(struct request_queue *q, struct bio *bio)
 {
@@ -194,6 +196,12 @@ static inline void rq_qos_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
 		__rq_qos_merge(q->rq_qos, rq, bio);
 }
 
+static inline void rq_qos_queue_depth_changed(struct request_queue *q)
+{
+	if (q->rq_qos)
+		__rq_qos_queue_depth_changed(q->rq_qos);
+}
+
 void rq_qos_exit(struct request_queue *);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/block/blk-settings.c b/block/blk-settings.c
index 2ae348c101a0..df323ea448de 100644
--- a/block/blk-settings.c
+++ b/block/blk-settings.c
@@ -804,7 +804,7 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_queue_update_dma_alignment);
 void blk_set_queue_depth(struct request_queue *q, unsigned int depth)
 {
 	q->queue_depth = depth;
-	wbt_set_queue_depth(q, depth);
+	rq_qos_queue_depth_changed(q);
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_set_queue_depth);
 
diff --git a/block/blk-wbt.c b/block/blk-wbt.c
index 313f45a37e9d..8118f95a194b 100644
--- a/block/blk-wbt.c
+++ b/block/blk-wbt.c
@@ -629,15 +629,6 @@ static void wbt_requeue(struct rq_qos *rqos, struct request *rq)
 	}
 }
 
-void wbt_set_queue_depth(struct request_queue *q, unsigned int depth)
-{
-	struct rq_qos *rqos = wbt_rq_qos(q);
-	if (rqos) {
-		RQWB(rqos)->rq_depth.queue_depth = depth;
-		__wbt_update_limits(RQWB(rqos));
-	}
-}
-
 void wbt_set_write_cache(struct request_queue *q, bool write_cache_on)
 {
 	struct rq_qos *rqos = wbt_rq_qos(q);
@@ -689,6 +680,12 @@ static int wbt_data_dir(const struct request *rq)
 	return -1;
 }
 
+static void wbt_queue_depth_changed(struct rq_qos *rqos)
+{
+	RQWB(rqos)->rq_depth.queue_depth = blk_queue_depth(rqos->q);
+	__wbt_update_limits(RQWB(rqos));
+}
+
 static void wbt_exit(struct rq_qos *rqos)
 {
 	struct rq_wb *rwb = RQWB(rqos);
@@ -811,6 +808,7 @@ static struct rq_qos_ops wbt_rqos_ops = {
 	.requeue = wbt_requeue,
 	.done = wbt_done,
 	.cleanup = wbt_cleanup,
+	.queue_depth_changed = wbt_queue_depth_changed,
 	.exit = wbt_exit,
 #ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEBUG_FS
 	.debugfs_attrs = wbt_debugfs_attrs,
@@ -853,7 +851,7 @@ int wbt_init(struct request_queue *q)
 
 	rwb->min_lat_nsec = wbt_default_latency_nsec(q);
 
-	wbt_set_queue_depth(q, blk_queue_depth(q));
+	wbt_queue_depth_changed(&rwb->rqos);
 	wbt_set_write_cache(q, test_bit(QUEUE_FLAG_WC, &q->queue_flags));
 
 	return 0;
diff --git a/block/blk-wbt.h b/block/blk-wbt.h
index f47218d5b3b2..8e4e37660971 100644
--- a/block/blk-wbt.h
+++ b/block/blk-wbt.h
@@ -95,7 +95,6 @@ void wbt_enable_default(struct request_queue *);
 u64 wbt_get_min_lat(struct request_queue *q);
 void wbt_set_min_lat(struct request_queue *q, u64 val);
 
-void wbt_set_queue_depth(struct request_queue *, unsigned int);
 void wbt_set_write_cache(struct request_queue *, bool);
 
 u64 wbt_default_latency_nsec(struct request_queue *);
@@ -118,9 +117,6 @@ static inline void wbt_disable_default(struct request_queue *q)
 static inline void wbt_enable_default(struct request_queue *q)
 {
 }
-static inline void wbt_set_queue_depth(struct request_queue *q, unsigned int depth)
-{
-}
 static inline void wbt_set_write_cache(struct request_queue *q, bool wc)
 {
 }
-- 
2.17.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 06/10] blkcg: s/RQ_QOS_CGROUP/RQ_QOS_LATENCY/
  2019-06-14  1:56 [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller Tejun Heo
                   ` (4 preceding siblings ...)
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 05/10] block/rq_qos: implement rq_qos_ops->queue_depth_changed() Tejun Heo
@ 2019-06-14  1:56 ` Tejun Heo
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 07/10] blk-mq: add optional request->pre_start_time_ns Tejun Heo
                   ` (4 subsequent siblings)
  10 siblings, 0 replies; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-06-14  1:56 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: axboe, newella, clm, josef, dennisz, lizefan, hannes
  Cc: linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups, ast, daniel,
	kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf, Tejun Heo

io.weight is gonna be another rq_qos cgroup mechanism.  Let's rename
RQ_QOS_CGROUP which is being used by io.latency to RQ_QOS_LATENCY in
preparation.

Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
---
 block/blk-iolatency.c | 2 +-
 block/blk-rq-qos.h    | 8 ++++----
 2 files changed, 5 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)

diff --git a/block/blk-iolatency.c b/block/blk-iolatency.c
index fa47a6485725..7d1dbe757063 100644
--- a/block/blk-iolatency.c
+++ b/block/blk-iolatency.c
@@ -744,7 +744,7 @@ int blk_iolatency_init(struct request_queue *q)
 		return -ENOMEM;
 
 	rqos = &blkiolat->rqos;
-	rqos->id = RQ_QOS_CGROUP;
+	rqos->id = RQ_QOS_LATENCY;
 	rqos->ops = &blkcg_iolatency_ops;
 	rqos->q = q;
 
diff --git a/block/blk-rq-qos.h b/block/blk-rq-qos.h
index e15b6907b76d..5f8b75826a98 100644
--- a/block/blk-rq-qos.h
+++ b/block/blk-rq-qos.h
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ struct blk_mq_debugfs_attr;
 
 enum rq_qos_id {
 	RQ_QOS_WBT,
-	RQ_QOS_CGROUP,
+	RQ_QOS_LATENCY,
 };
 
 struct rq_wait {
@@ -74,7 +74,7 @@ static inline struct rq_qos *wbt_rq_qos(struct request_queue *q)
 
 static inline struct rq_qos *blkcg_rq_qos(struct request_queue *q)
 {
-	return rq_qos_id(q, RQ_QOS_CGROUP);
+	return rq_qos_id(q, RQ_QOS_LATENCY);
 }
 
 static inline const char *rq_qos_id_to_name(enum rq_qos_id id)
@@ -82,8 +82,8 @@ static inline const char *rq_qos_id_to_name(enum rq_qos_id id)
 	switch (id) {
 	case RQ_QOS_WBT:
 		return "wbt";
-	case RQ_QOS_CGROUP:
-		return "cgroup";
+	case RQ_QOS_LATENCY:
+		return "latency";
 	}
 	return "unknown";
 }
-- 
2.17.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 07/10] blk-mq: add optional request->pre_start_time_ns
  2019-06-14  1:56 [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller Tejun Heo
                   ` (5 preceding siblings ...)
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 06/10] blkcg: s/RQ_QOS_CGROUP/RQ_QOS_LATENCY/ Tejun Heo
@ 2019-06-14  1:56 ` Tejun Heo
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 08/10] blkcg: implement blk-ioweight Tejun Heo
                   ` (3 subsequent siblings)
  10 siblings, 0 replies; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-06-14  1:56 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: axboe, newella, clm, josef, dennisz, lizefan, hannes
  Cc: linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups, ast, daniel,
	kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf, Tejun Heo

There are currently two start time timestamps - start_time_ns and
io_start_time_ns.  The former marks the request allocation and and the
second issue-to-device time.  The planned io.weight controller needs
to measure the total time bios take to execute after it leaves rq_qos
including the time spent waiting for request to become available,
which can easily dominate on saturated devices.

This patch adds request->pre_start_time_ns which records when the
request allocation attempt started.  As it isn't used for the usual
stats, make it optional behind QUEUE_FLAG_REC_PRESTART.

Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
---
 block/blk-mq.c         | 11 +++++++++--
 include/linux/blkdev.h |  7 ++++++-
 2 files changed, 15 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)

diff --git a/block/blk-mq.c b/block/blk-mq.c
index ce0f5f4ede70..25ce27434c63 100644
--- a/block/blk-mq.c
+++ b/block/blk-mq.c
@@ -291,7 +291,7 @@ static inline bool blk_mq_need_time_stamp(struct request *rq)
 }
 
 static struct request *blk_mq_rq_ctx_init(struct blk_mq_alloc_data *data,
-		unsigned int tag, unsigned int op)
+		unsigned int tag, unsigned int op, u64 pre_start_time_ns)
 {
 	struct blk_mq_tags *tags = blk_mq_tags_from_data(data);
 	struct request *rq = tags->static_rqs[tag];
@@ -325,6 +325,7 @@ static struct request *blk_mq_rq_ctx_init(struct blk_mq_alloc_data *data,
 	RB_CLEAR_NODE(&rq->rb_node);
 	rq->rq_disk = NULL;
 	rq->part = NULL;
+	rq->pre_start_time_ns = pre_start_time_ns;
 	if (blk_mq_need_time_stamp(rq))
 		rq->start_time_ns = ktime_get_ns();
 	else
@@ -356,8 +357,14 @@ static struct request *blk_mq_get_request(struct request_queue *q,
 	struct request *rq;
 	unsigned int tag;
 	bool put_ctx_on_error = false;
+	u64 pre_start_time_ns = 0;
 
 	blk_queue_enter_live(q);
+
+	/* pre_start_time includes depth and tag waits */
+	if (blk_queue_rec_prestart(q))
+		pre_start_time_ns = ktime_get_ns();
+
 	data->q = q;
 	if (likely(!data->ctx)) {
 		data->ctx = blk_mq_get_ctx(q);
@@ -395,7 +402,7 @@ static struct request *blk_mq_get_request(struct request_queue *q,
 		return NULL;
 	}
 
-	rq = blk_mq_rq_ctx_init(data, tag, data->cmd_flags);
+	rq = blk_mq_rq_ctx_init(data, tag, data->cmd_flags, pre_start_time_ns);
 	if (!op_is_flush(data->cmd_flags)) {
 		rq->elv.icq = NULL;
 		if (e && e->type->ops.prepare_request) {
diff --git a/include/linux/blkdev.h b/include/linux/blkdev.h
index 592669bcc536..ff72eb940d4c 100644
--- a/include/linux/blkdev.h
+++ b/include/linux/blkdev.h
@@ -194,7 +194,9 @@ struct request {
 
 	struct gendisk *rq_disk;
 	struct hd_struct *part;
-	/* Time that I/O was submitted to the kernel. */
+	/* Time that the first bio started allocating this request. */
+	u64 pre_start_time_ns;
+	/* Time that this request was allocated for this IO. */
 	u64 start_time_ns;
 	/* Time that I/O was submitted to the device. */
 	u64 io_start_time_ns;
@@ -606,6 +608,7 @@ struct request_queue {
 #define QUEUE_FLAG_SCSI_PASSTHROUGH 23	/* queue supports SCSI commands */
 #define QUEUE_FLAG_QUIESCED	24	/* queue has been quiesced */
 #define QUEUE_FLAG_PCI_P2PDMA	25	/* device supports PCI p2p requests */
+#define QUEUE_FLAG_REC_PRESTART	26	/* record pre_start_time_ns */
 
 #define QUEUE_FLAG_MQ_DEFAULT	((1 << QUEUE_FLAG_IO_STAT) |		\
 				 (1 << QUEUE_FLAG_SAME_COMP))
@@ -632,6 +635,8 @@ bool blk_queue_flag_test_and_set(unsigned int flag, struct request_queue *q);
 	test_bit(QUEUE_FLAG_SCSI_PASSTHROUGH, &(q)->queue_flags)
 #define blk_queue_pci_p2pdma(q)	\
 	test_bit(QUEUE_FLAG_PCI_P2PDMA, &(q)->queue_flags)
+#define blk_queue_rec_prestart(q)	\
+	test_bit(QUEUE_FLAG_REC_PRESTART, &(q)->queue_flags)
 
 #define blk_noretry_request(rq) \
 	((rq)->cmd_flags & (REQ_FAILFAST_DEV|REQ_FAILFAST_TRANSPORT| \
-- 
2.17.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 08/10] blkcg: implement blk-ioweight
  2019-06-14  1:56 [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller Tejun Heo
                   ` (6 preceding siblings ...)
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 07/10] blk-mq: add optional request->pre_start_time_ns Tejun Heo
@ 2019-06-14  1:56 ` Tejun Heo
  2019-06-14 12:17   ` Toke Høiland-Jørgensen
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 09/10] blkcg: add tools/cgroup/monitor_ioweight.py Tejun Heo
                   ` (2 subsequent siblings)
  10 siblings, 1 reply; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-06-14  1:56 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: axboe, newella, clm, josef, dennisz, lizefan, hannes
  Cc: linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups, ast, daniel,
	kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf, Tejun Heo, Josef Bacik

This patchset implements IO cost model based work-conserving
proportional controller.

While io.latency provides the capability to comprehensively prioritize
and protect IOs depending on the cgroups, its protection is binary -
the lowest latency target cgroup which is suffering is protected at
the cost of all others.  In many use cases including stacking multiple
workload containers in a single system, it's necessary to distribute
IO capacity with better granularity.

One challenge of controlling IO resources is the lack of trivially
observable cost metric.  The most common metrics - bandwidth and iops
- can be off by orders of magnitude depending on the device type and
IO pattern.  However, the cost isn't a complete mystery.  Given
several key attributes, we can make fairly reliable predictions on how
expensive a given stream of IOs would be, at least compared to other
IO patterns.

The function which determines the cost of a given IO is the IO cost
model for the device.  This controller distributes IO capacity based
on the costs estimated by such model.  The more accurate the cost
model the better but the controller adapts based on IO completion
latency and as long as the relative costs across differents IO
patterns are consistent and sensible, it'll adapt to the actual
performance of the device.

Currently, the only implemented cost model is a simple linear one with
a few sets of default parameters for different classes of device.
This covers most common devices reasonably well.  All the
infrastructure to tune and add different cost models is already in
place and a later patch will also allow using bpf progs for cost
models.

Please see the top comment in blk-ioweight.c and documentation for
more details.

Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Cc: Andy Newell <newella@fb.com>
Cc: Josef Bacik <jbacik@fb.com>
---
 Documentation/admin-guide/cgroup-v2.rst |   93 +
 block/Kconfig                           |    9 +
 block/Makefile                          |    1 +
 block/blk-ioweight.c                    | 2356 +++++++++++++++++++++++
 block/blk-rq-qos.h                      |    3 +
 include/linux/blk_types.h               |    3 +
 include/trace/events/ioweight.h         |  174 ++
 7 files changed, 2639 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 block/blk-ioweight.c
 create mode 100644 include/trace/events/ioweight.h

diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/cgroup-v2.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/cgroup-v2.rst
index a5c845338d6d..e66ee2c20b3b 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/cgroup-v2.rst
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/cgroup-v2.rst
@@ -1425,6 +1425,99 @@ IO Interface Files
 	  8:16 rbytes=1459200 wbytes=314773504 rios=192 wios=353 dbytes=0 dios=0
 	  8:0 rbytes=90430464 wbytes=299008000 rios=8950 wios=1252 dbytes=50331648 dios=3021
 
+  io.weight.qos
+	A read-write nested-keyed file with exists only on the root
+	cgroup.
+
+	This file configures the Quality of Service of the IO cost
+	model based proportional controller
+	(CONFIG_BLK_CGROUP_IOWEIGHT).  Lines are keyed by $MAJ:$MIN
+	device numbers and not ordered.  The line for a given device
+	is populated on the first write for the device on
+	"io.weight.qos" or "io.weight.cost_model".  The following
+	nested keys are defined.
+
+	  ======	=====================================
+	  enable	Weight-based control enable
+	  ctrl		"auto" or "user"
+	  rpct		Read latency percentile    [0, 100]
+	  rlat		Read latency threshold
+	  wpct		Write latency percentile   [0, 100]
+	  wlat		Write latency threshold
+	  min		Minimum scaling percentage [1, 10000]
+	  max		Maximum scaling percentage [1, 10000]
+	  ======	=====================================
+
+	The controller is disabled by default and can be enabled by
+	setting "enable" to 1.  "rpct" and "wpct" parameters default
+	to zero and the controller uses internal device saturation
+	state to adjust the overall IO rate between "min" and "max".
+
+	When a better control quality is needed, latency QoS
+	parameters can be configured.  For example::
+
+	  8:16 enable=1 ctrl=auto rpct=95.00 rlat=75000 wpct=95.00 wlat=150000 min=50.00 max=150.0
+
+	shows that on sdb, the controller is enabled, will consider
+	the device saturated if the 95th percentile of read completion
+	latencies is above 75ms or write 150ms, and adjust the overall
+	IO issue rate between 50% and 150% accordingly.
+
+	The lower the saturation point, the better the latency QoS at
+	the cost of aggregate bandwidth.  The narrower the allowed
+	adjustment range between "min" and "max", the more conformant
+	to the cost model the IO behavior.  Note that the IO issue
+	base rate may be far off from 100% and setting "min" and "max"
+	blindly can lead to a significant loss of device capacity or
+	control quality.  "min" and "max" are useful for regulating
+	devices which show wide temporary behavior changes - e.g. a
+	ssd which accepts writes at the line speed for a while and
+	then completely stalls for multiple seconds.
+
+	When "ctrl" is "auto", the parameters are controlled by the
+	kernel and may change automatically.  Setting "ctrl" to "user"
+	or setting any of the percentile and latency parameters puts
+	it into "user" mode and disables the automatic changes.  The
+	automatic mode can be restored by setting "ctrl" to "auto".
+
+  io.weight.cost_model
+	A read-write nested-keyed file with exists only on the root
+	cgroup.
+
+	This file configures the cost model of the IO cost model based
+	proportional controller (CONFIG_BLK_CGROUP_IOWEIGHT).  Lines
+	are keyed by $MAJ:$MIN device numbers and not ordered.  The
+	line for a given device is populated on the first write for
+	the device on "io.weight.qos" or "io.weight.cost_model".  The
+	following nested keys are defined.
+
+	  =====		================================
+	  ctrl		"auto" or "user"
+	  model		The cost model in use - "linear"
+	  =====		================================
+
+	When "ctrl" is "auto", the kernel may change all parameters
+	dynamically.  When "ctrl" is set to "user" or any other
+	parameters are written to, "ctrl" become "user" and the
+	automatic changes are disabled.
+
+	When "model" is "linear", the following model parameters are
+	defined.
+
+	  =============	========================================
+	  [r|w]bps	The maximum sequential IO throughput
+	  [r|w]seqiops	The maximum 4k sequential IOs per second
+	  [r|w]randiops	The maximum 4k random IOs per second
+	  =============	========================================
+
+	From the above, the builtin linear model determines the base
+	costs of a sequential and random IO and the cost coefficient
+	for the IO size.  While simple, this model can cover most
+	common device classes acceptably.
+
+	The IO cost model isn't expected to be accurate in absolute
+	sense and is scaled to the device behavior dynamically.
+
   io.weight
 	A read-write flat-keyed file which exists on non-root cgroups.
 	The default is "default 100".
diff --git a/block/Kconfig b/block/Kconfig
index 2466dcc3ef1d..15b3de28a264 100644
--- a/block/Kconfig
+++ b/block/Kconfig
@@ -132,6 +132,15 @@ config BLK_CGROUP_IOLATENCY
 
 	Note, this is an experimental interface and could be changed someday.
 
+config BLK_CGROUP_IOWEIGHT
+	bool "Enable support for weight based cgroup IO protection"
+	depends on BLK_CGROUP=y
+	---help---
+	Enabling this option enables the .weight interface for IO throttling.
+	The IO controller will attempt to maintain a IO distribution between
+	different groups based on their percentage of share of the overall
+	weight distribution.
+
 config BLK_WBT_MQ
 	bool "Multiqueue writeback throttling"
 	default y
diff --git a/block/Makefile b/block/Makefile
index eee1b4ceecf9..e8a8ef16dbff 100644
--- a/block/Makefile
+++ b/block/Makefile
@@ -18,6 +18,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_BLK_DEV_BSGLIB)	+= bsg-lib.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_BLK_CGROUP)	+= blk-cgroup.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_BLK_DEV_THROTTLING)	+= blk-throttle.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_BLK_CGROUP_IOLATENCY)	+= blk-iolatency.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_BLK_CGROUP_IOWEIGHT)	+= blk-ioweight.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_MQ_IOSCHED_DEADLINE)	+= mq-deadline.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_MQ_IOSCHED_KYBER)	+= kyber-iosched.o
 bfq-y				:= bfq-iosched.o bfq-wf2q.o bfq-cgroup.o
diff --git a/block/blk-ioweight.c b/block/blk-ioweight.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..d10249f5774e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/block/blk-ioweight.c
@@ -0,0 +1,2356 @@
+/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+ *
+ * IO cost model based work-conserving proportional controller.
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2019 Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
+ * Copyright (C) 2019 Andy Newell <newella@fb.com>
+ * Copyright (C) 2019 Facebook
+ *
+ * One challenge of controlling IO resources is the lack of trivially
+ * observable cost metric.  This is distinguished from CPU and memory where
+ * wallclock time and the number of bytes can serve as accurate enough
+ * approximations.
+ *
+ * Bandwidth and iops are the most commonly used metrics for IO devices but
+ * depending on the type and specifics of the device, different IO patterns
+ * easily lead to multiple orders of magnitude variations rendering them
+ * useless for the purpose of IO capacity distribution.  While on-device
+ * time, with a lot of clutches, could serve as a useful approximation for
+ * non-queued rotational devices, this is no longer viable with modern
+ * devices, even the rotational ones.
+ *
+ * While there is no cost metric we can trivially observe, it isn't a
+ * complete mystery.  For example, on a rotational device, seek cost
+ * dominates while a contiguous transfer contributes a smaller amount
+ * proportional to the size.  If we can characterize at least the relative
+ * costs of these different types of IOs, it should be possible to
+ * implement a reasonable work-conserving proportional IO resource
+ * distribution.
+ *
+ * 1. IO Cost Model
+ *
+ * IO cost model estimates the cost of an IO given its basic parameters and
+ * history (e.g. the end sector of the last IO).  The cost is measured in
+ * device time.  If a given IO is estimated to cost 10ms, the device should
+ * be able to process ~100 of those IOs in a second.
+ *
+ * Currently, there's only one builtin cost model - linear.  Each IO is
+ * classified as sequential or random and given a base cost accordingly.
+ * On top of that, a size cost proportional to the length of the IO is
+ * added.  While simple, this model captures the operational
+ * characteristics of a wide varienty of devices well enough.  Default
+ * paramters for several different classes of devices are provided and the
+ * parameters can be configured from userspace via
+ * /sys/block/DEV/queue/io_cost_model.
+ *
+ * 2. Control Strategy
+ *
+ * The device virtual time (vtime) is used as the primary control metric.
+ * The control strategy is composed of the following three parts.
+ *
+ * 2-1. Vtime Distribution
+ *
+ * When a cgroup becomes active in terms of IOs, its hierarchical share is
+ * calculated.  Please consider the following hierarchy where the numbers
+ * inside parentheses denote the configured weights.
+ *
+ *           root
+ *         /       \
+ *      A (w:100)  B (w:300)
+ *      /       \
+ *  A0 (w:100)  A1 (w:100)
+ *
+ * If B is idle and only A0 and A1 are actively issuing IOs, as the two are
+ * of equal weight, each gets 50% share.  If then B starts issuing IOs, B
+ * gets 300/(100+300) or 75% share, and A0 and A1 equally splits the rest,
+ * 12.5% each.  The distribution mechanism only cares about these flattened
+ * shares.  They're called hweights (hierarchical weights) and always add
+ * upto 1 (HWEIGHT_WHOLE).
+ *
+ * A given cgroup's vtime runs slower in inverse proportion to its hweight.
+ * For example, with 12.5% weight, A0's time runs 8 times slower (100/12.5)
+ * against the device vtime - an IO which takes 10ms on the underlying
+ * device is considered to take 80ms on A0.
+ *
+ * This constitutes the basis of IO capacity distribution.  Each cgroup's
+ * vtime is running at a rate determined by its hweight.  A cgroup tracks
+ * the vtime consumed by past IOs and can issue a new IO iff doing so
+ * wouldn't outrun the current device vtime.  Otherwise, the IO is
+ * suspended until the vtime has progressed enough to cover it.
+ *
+ * 2-2. Vrate Adjustment
+ *
+ * It's unrealistic to expect the cost model to be perfect.  There are too
+ * many devices and even on the same device the overall performance
+ * fluctuates depending on numerous factors such as IO mixture and device
+ * internal garbage collection.  The controller needs to adapt dynamically.
+ *
+ * This is achieved by adjusting the overall IO rate according to how busy
+ * the device is.  If the device becomes overloaded, we're sending down too
+ * many IOs and should generally slow down.  If there are waiting issuers
+ * but the device isn't saturated, we're issuing too few and should
+ * generally speed up.
+ *
+ * To slow down, we lower the vrate - the rate at which the device vtime
+ * passes compared to the wall clock.  For example, if the vtime is running
+ * at the vrate of 75%, all cgroups added up would only be able to issue
+ * 750ms worth of IOs per second, and vice-versa for speeding up.
+ *
+ * Device business is determined using two criteria - rq wait and
+ * completion latencies.
+ *
+ * When a device gets saturated, the on-device and then the request queues
+ * fill up and a bio which is ready to be issued has to wait for a request
+ * to become available.  When this delay becomes noticeable, it's a clear
+ * indication that the device is saturated and we lower the vrate.  This
+ * saturation signal is fairly conservative as it only triggers when both
+ * hardware and software queues are filled up, and is used as the default
+ * busy signal.
+ *
+ * As devices can have deep queues and be unfair in how the queued commands
+ * are executed, soley depending on rq wait may not result in satisfactory
+ * control quality.  For a better control quality, completion latency QoS
+ * parameters can be configured so that the device is considered saturated
+ * if N'th percentile completion latency rises above the set point.
+ *
+ * The completion latency requirements are a function of both the
+ * underlying device characteristics and the desired IO latency quality of
+ * service.  There is an inherent trade-off - the tighter the latency QoS,
+ * the higher the bandwidth lossage.  Latency QoS is disabled by default
+ * and can be set through /sys/fs/cgroup/io.weight.qos.
+ *
+ * 2-3. Work Conservation
+ *
+ * Imagine two cgroups A and B with equal weights.  A is issuing a small IO
+ * periodically while B is sending out enough parallel IOs to saturate the
+ * device on its own.  Let's say A's usage amounts to 100ms worth of IO
+ * cost per second, i.e., 10% of the device capacity.  The naive
+ * distribution of half and half would lead to 60% utilization of the
+ * device, a significant reduction in the total amount of work done
+ * compared to free-for-all competition.  This is too high a cost to pay
+ * for IO control.
+ *
+ * To conserve the total amount of work done, we keep track of how much
+ * each active cgroup is actually using and yield part of its weight if
+ * there are other cgroups which can make use of it.  In the above case,
+ * A's weight will be lowered so that it hovers above the actual usage and
+ * B would be able to use the rest.
+ *
+ * As we don't want to penalize a cgroup for donating its weight, the
+ * surplus weight adjustment factors in a margin and has an immediate
+ * snapback mechanism in case the cgroup needs more IO vtime for itself.
+ *
+ * Note that adjusting down surplus weights has the same effects as
+ * accelerating vtime for other cgroups and work conservation can also be
+ * implemented by adjusting vrate dynamically.  However, squaring who can
+ * donate and should take back how much requires hweight propagations
+ * anyway making it easier to implement and understand as a separate
+ * mechanism.
+ */
+
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/timer.h>
+#include <linux/time64.h>
+#include <linux/parser.h>
+#include <linux/sched/signal.h>
+#include <linux/blk-cgroup.h>
+#include "blk-rq-qos.h"
+#include "blk-stat.h"
+#include "blk-wbt.h"
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_TRACEPOINTS
+
+/* copied from TRACE_CGROUP_PATH, see cgroup-internal.h */
+#define TRACE_IOWG_PATH_LEN 1024
+static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(trace_iowg_path_lock);
+static char trace_iowg_path[TRACE_IOWG_PATH_LEN];
+
+#define TRACE_IOWG_PATH(type, iowg, ...)					\
+	do {									\
+		unsigned long flags;						\
+		if (trace_ioweight_##type##_enabled()) {			\
+			spin_lock_irqsave(&trace_iowg_path_lock, flags);	\
+			cgroup_path(iowg_to_blkg(iowg)->blkcg->css.cgroup,	\
+				    trace_iowg_path, TRACE_IOWG_PATH_LEN);	\
+			trace_ioweight_##type(iowg, trace_iowg_path,		\
+					      ##__VA_ARGS__);			\
+			spin_unlock_irqrestore(&trace_iowg_path_lock, flags);	\
+		}								\
+	} while (0)
+
+#endif /* CONFIG_TRACE_POINTS */
+
+enum {
+	MILLION			= 1000000,
+
+	/* timer period is calculated from latency requirements, bound it */
+	MIN_PERIOD		= USEC_PER_MSEC,
+	MAX_PERIOD		= USEC_PER_SEC,
+
+	/*
+	 * A cgroup's vtime can run 50% behind the device vtime, which
+	 * serves as its IO credit buffer.  Surplus weight adjustment is
+	 * immediately canceled if the vtime margin runs below 10%.
+	 */
+	MARGIN_PCT		= 50,
+	INUSE_MARGIN_PCT	= 10,
+
+	/* Have some play in waitq timer operations */
+	WAITQ_TIMER_MARGIN_PCT	= 5,
+
+	/*
+	 * vtime can wrap well within a reasonable uptime when vrate is
+	 * consistently raised.  Don't trust recorded cgroup vtime if the
+	 * period counter indicates that it's older than 5mins.
+	 */
+	VTIME_VALID_DUR		= 300 * USEC_PER_SEC,
+
+	/*
+	 * Remember the past three non-zero usages and use the max for
+	 * surplus calculation.  Three slots guarantee that we remember one
+	 * full period usage from the last active stretch even after
+	 * partial deactivation and re-activation periods.  Don't start
+	 * giving away weight before collecting two data points to prevent
+	 * hweight adjustments based on one partial activation period.
+	 */
+	NR_USAGE_SLOTS		= 3,
+	MIN_VALID_USAGES	= 2,
+
+	/* 1/64k is granular enough and can easily be handled w/ u32 */
+	HWEIGHT_WHOLE		= 1 << 16,
+
+	/*
+	 * As vtime is used to calculate the cost of each IO, it needs to
+	 * be fairly high precision.  For example, it should be able to
+	 * represent the cost of a single page worth of discard with
+	 * suffificient accuracy.  At the same time, it should be able to
+	 * represent reasonably long enough durations to be useful and
+	 * convenient during operation.
+	 *
+	 * 1s worth of vtime is 2^37.  This gives us both sub-nanosecond
+	 * granularity and days of wrap-around time even at extreme vrates.
+	 */
+	VTIME_PER_SEC_SHIFT	= 37,
+	VTIME_PER_SEC		= 1LLU << VTIME_PER_SEC_SHIFT,
+	VTIME_PER_USEC		= VTIME_PER_SEC / USEC_PER_SEC,
+
+	/* bound vrate adjustments within two orders of magnitude */
+	VRATE_MIN_PPM		= 10000,	/* 1% */
+	VRATE_MAX_PPM		= 100000000,	/* 10000% */
+
+	VRATE_MIN		= VTIME_PER_USEC * VRATE_MIN_PPM / MILLION,
+	VRATE_CLAMP_ADJ_PCT	= 4,
+
+	/* if IOs end up waiting for requests, issue less */
+	RQ_WAIT_BUSY_PCT	= 5,
+
+	/* unbusy hysterisis */
+	UNBUSY_THR_PCT		= 75,
+
+	/* don't let cmds which take a very long time pin lagging for too long */
+	MAX_LAGGING_PERIODS	= 10,
+
+	/*
+	 * If usage% * 1.25 + 2% is lower than hweight% by more than 3%,
+	 * donate the surplus.
+	 */
+	SURPLUS_SCALE_PCT	= 125,			/* * 125% */
+	SURPLUS_SCALE_ABS	= HWEIGHT_WHOLE / 50,	/* + 2% */
+	SURPLUS_MIN_ADJ_DELTA	= HWEIGHT_WHOLE / 33,	/* 3% */
+
+	/* switch iff the conditions are met for longer than this */
+	AUTOP_CYCLE_NSEC	= 10 * NSEC_PER_SEC,
+
+	/*
+	 * Count IO size in 4k pages.  The 12bit shift helps keeping
+	 * size-proportional components of cost calculation in closer
+	 * numbers of digits to per-IO cost components.
+	 */
+	IOW_PAGE_SHIFT		= 12,
+	IOW_PAGE_SIZE		= 1 << IOW_PAGE_SHIFT,
+	IOW_SECT_TO_PAGE_SHIFT	= IOW_PAGE_SHIFT - SECTOR_SHIFT,
+
+	/* if apart further than 16M, consider randio for linear model */
+	LCOEF_RANDIO_PAGES	= 4096,
+};
+
+enum iow_running {
+	IOW_IDLE,
+	IOW_RUNNING,
+	IOW_STOP,
+};
+
+/* IO latency QoS controls including per-dev enable of the whole controller */
+enum {
+	QOS_ENABLE,
+	QOS_CTRL,
+	NR_QOS_CTRL_PARAMS,
+};
+
+/* IO latency QoS params */
+enum {
+	QOS_RPPM,
+	QOS_RLAT,
+	QOS_WPPM,
+	QOS_WLAT,
+	QOS_MIN,
+	QOS_MAX,
+	NR_QOS_PARAMS,
+};
+
+/* cost model controls */
+enum {
+	COST_CTRL,
+	COST_MODEL,
+	NR_COST_CTRL_PARAMS,
+};
+
+/* builtin linear cost model coefficients */
+enum {
+	I_LCOEF_RBPS,
+	I_LCOEF_RSEQIOPS,
+	I_LCOEF_RRANDIOPS,
+	I_LCOEF_WBPS,
+	I_LCOEF_WSEQIOPS,
+	I_LCOEF_WRANDIOPS,
+	NR_I_LCOEFS,
+};
+
+enum {
+	LCOEF_RPAGE,
+	LCOEF_RSEQIO,
+	LCOEF_RRANDIO,
+	LCOEF_WPAGE,
+	LCOEF_WSEQIO,
+	LCOEF_WRANDIO,
+	NR_LCOEFS,
+};
+
+enum {
+	AUTOP_INVALID,
+	AUTOP_HDD,
+	AUTOP_SSD_QD1,
+	AUTOP_SSD_DFL,
+	AUTOP_SSD_FAST,
+};
+
+struct iow_gq;
+
+struct iow_params {
+	u32				qos[NR_QOS_PARAMS];
+	u64				i_lcoefs[NR_I_LCOEFS];
+	u64				lcoefs[NR_LCOEFS];
+	u32				too_fast_vrate_pct;
+	u32				too_slow_vrate_pct;
+};
+
+struct iow_missed {
+	u32				nr_met;
+	u32				nr_missed;
+	u32				last_met;
+	u32				last_missed;
+};
+
+struct iow_pcpu_stat {
+	struct iow_missed		missed[2];
+
+	u64				rq_wait_ns;
+	u64				last_rq_wait_ns;
+};
+
+/* per device */
+struct iow {
+	struct rq_qos			rqos;
+
+	bool				enabled;
+
+	struct iow_params		params;
+	u32				period_us;
+	u32				margin_us;
+	u64				vrate_min;
+	u64				vrate_max;
+
+	spinlock_t			lock;
+	struct timer_list		timer;
+	struct list_head		active_iowgs;	/* active cgroups */
+	struct iow_pcpu_stat __percpu	*pcpu_stat;
+
+	enum iow_running		running;
+	atomic64_t			vtime_rate;
+
+	seqcount_t			period_seqcount;
+	u32				period_at;	/* wallclock starttime */
+	u64				period_at_vtime; /* vtime starttime */
+
+	atomic64_t			cur_period;	/* inc'd each period */
+	int				busy_level;	/* saturation history */
+
+	u64				inuse_margin_vtime;
+	bool				weights_updated;
+	atomic_t			hweight_gen;	/* for lazy hweights */
+
+	u64				autop_too_fast_at;
+	u64				autop_too_slow_at;
+	int				autop_idx;
+	bool				user_qos_params:1;
+	bool				user_cost_model:1;
+};
+
+/* per device-cgroup pair */
+struct iow_gq {
+	struct blkg_policy_data		pd;
+	struct iow			*iow;
+
+	/*
+	 * A iowg can get its weight from two sources - an explicit
+	 * per-device-cgroup configuration or the default weight of the
+	 * cgroup.  `cfg_weight` is the explicit per-device-cgroup
+	 * configuration.  `weight` is the effective considering both
+	 * sources.
+	 *
+	 * When an idle cgroup becomes active its `active` goes from 0 to
+	 * `weight`.  `inuse` is the surplus adjusted active weight.
+	 * `active` and `inuse` are used to calculate `hweight_active` and
+	 * `hweight_inuse`.
+	 *
+	 * `last_inuse` remembers `inuse` while an iowg is idle to persist
+	 * surplus adjustments.
+	 */
+	u32				cfg_weight;
+	u32				weight;
+	u32				active;
+	u32				inuse;
+	u32				last_inuse;
+
+	sector_t			cursor;		/* to detect randio */
+
+	/*
+	 * `vtime` is this iowg's vtime cursor which progresses as IOs are
+	 * issued.  If lagging behind device vtime, the delta represents
+	 * the currently available IO budget.  If runnning ahead, the
+	 * overage.
+	 *
+	 * `vtime_done` is the same but progressed on completion rather
+	 * than issue.  The delta behind `vtime` represents the cost of
+	 * currently in-flight IOs.
+	 *
+	 * `last_vtime` is used to remember `vtime` at the end of the last
+	 * period to calculate utilization.
+	 */
+	atomic64_t			vtime;
+	atomic64_t			done_vtime;
+	u64				last_vtime;
+
+	/*
+	 * The period this iowg was last active in.  Used for deactivation
+	 * and invalidating `vtime`.
+	 */
+	atomic64_t			active_period;
+	struct list_head		active_list;
+
+	/* see __propagate_active_weight() and current_hweight() for details */
+	u64				child_active_sum;
+	u64				child_inuse_sum;
+	int				hweight_gen;
+	u32				hweight_active;
+	u32				hweight_inuse;
+	bool				has_surplus;
+
+	struct wait_queue_head		waitq;
+	struct hrtimer			waitq_timer;
+	struct hrtimer			delay_timer;
+
+	/* usage is recorded as fractions of HWEIGHT_WHOLE */
+	int				usage_idx;
+	u32				usages[NR_USAGE_SLOTS];
+
+	/* this iowg's depth in the hierarchy and ancestors including self */
+	int				level;
+	struct iow_gq			*ancestors[];
+};
+
+/* per cgroup */
+struct iow_cgrp {
+	struct blkcg_policy_data	cpd;
+	unsigned int			dfl_weight;
+};
+
+struct iow_now {
+	u64				now_ns;
+	u32				now;
+	u64				vnow;
+	u64				vrate;
+};
+
+struct iowg_wait {
+	struct wait_queue_entry		wait;
+	struct bio			*bio;
+	u64				abs_cost;
+	bool				committed;
+};
+
+struct iowg_wake_ctx {
+	struct iow_gq			*iowg;
+	u32				hw_inuse;
+	s64				vbudget;
+};
+
+static const struct iow_params autop[] = {
+	[AUTOP_HDD] = {
+		.qos				= {
+			[QOS_RLAT]		=         50000, /* 50ms */
+			[QOS_WLAT]		=         50000,
+			[QOS_MIN]		= VRATE_MIN_PPM,
+			[QOS_MAX]		= VRATE_MAX_PPM,
+		},
+		.i_lcoefs			= {
+			[I_LCOEF_RBPS]		=     174019176,
+			[I_LCOEF_RSEQIOPS]	=         41708,
+			[I_LCOEF_RRANDIOPS]	=           370,
+			[I_LCOEF_WBPS]		=     178075866,
+			[I_LCOEF_WSEQIOPS]	=         42705,
+			[I_LCOEF_WRANDIOPS]	=           378,
+		},
+	},
+	[AUTOP_SSD_QD1] = {
+		.qos				= {
+			[QOS_RLAT]		=         25000, /* 25ms */
+			[QOS_WLAT]		=         25000,
+			[QOS_MIN]		= VRATE_MIN_PPM,
+			[QOS_MAX]		= VRATE_MAX_PPM,
+		},
+		.i_lcoefs			= {
+			[I_LCOEF_RBPS]		=     245855193,
+			[I_LCOEF_RSEQIOPS]	=         61575,
+			[I_LCOEF_RRANDIOPS]	=          6946,
+			[I_LCOEF_WBPS]		=     141365009,
+			[I_LCOEF_WSEQIOPS]	=         33716,
+			[I_LCOEF_WRANDIOPS]	=         26796,
+		},
+	},
+	[AUTOP_SSD_DFL] = {
+		.qos				= {
+			[QOS_RLAT]		=         25000, /* 25ms */
+			[QOS_WLAT]		=         25000,
+			[QOS_MIN]		= VRATE_MIN_PPM,
+			[QOS_MAX]		= VRATE_MAX_PPM,
+		},
+		.i_lcoefs			= {
+			[I_LCOEF_RBPS]		=     488636629,
+			[I_LCOEF_RSEQIOPS]	=          8932,
+			[I_LCOEF_RRANDIOPS]	=          8518,
+			[I_LCOEF_WBPS]		=     427891549,
+			[I_LCOEF_WSEQIOPS]	=         28755,
+			[I_LCOEF_WRANDIOPS]	=         21940,
+		},
+		.too_fast_vrate_pct		=           500,
+	},
+	[AUTOP_SSD_FAST] = {
+		.qos				= {
+			[QOS_RLAT]		=          5000, /* 5ms */
+			[QOS_WLAT]		=          5000,
+			[QOS_MIN]		= VRATE_MIN_PPM,
+			[QOS_MAX]		= VRATE_MAX_PPM,
+		},
+		.i_lcoefs			= {
+			[I_LCOEF_RBPS]		=    2338259289,
+			[I_LCOEF_RSEQIOPS]	=         15336,
+			[I_LCOEF_RRANDIOPS]	=         14588,
+			[I_LCOEF_WBPS]		=    1897549999,
+			[I_LCOEF_WSEQIOPS]	=         51317,
+			[I_LCOEF_WRANDIOPS]	=         37157,
+		},
+		.too_slow_vrate_pct		=            10,
+	},
+};
+
+/*
+ * vrate adjust percentages indexed by iow->busy_level.  We adjust up on
+ * vtime credit shortage and down on device saturation.
+ */
+static u32 vrate_adj_pct[] =
+	{ 0, 0, 0, 0,
+	  1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
+	  2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2,
+	  4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 16 };
+
+static struct blkcg_policy blkcg_policy_iow;
+
+/* accessors and helpers */
+static struct iow *rqos_to_iow(struct rq_qos *rqos)
+{
+	return container_of(rqos, struct iow, rqos);
+}
+
+static struct iow *q_to_iow(struct request_queue *q)
+{
+	return rqos_to_iow(rq_qos_id(q, RQ_QOS_WEIGHT));
+}
+
+static const char *q_name(struct request_queue *q)
+{
+	if (test_bit(QUEUE_FLAG_REGISTERED, &q->queue_flags))
+		return kobject_name(q->kobj.parent);
+	else
+		return "<unknown>";
+}
+
+static const char *iow_name(struct iow *iow)
+{
+	return q_name(iow->rqos.q);
+}
+
+static struct iow_gq *pd_to_iowg(struct blkg_policy_data *pd)
+{
+	return pd ? container_of(pd, struct iow_gq, pd) : NULL;
+}
+
+static struct iow_gq *blkg_to_iowg(struct blkcg_gq *blkg)
+{
+	return pd_to_iowg(blkg_to_pd(blkg, &blkcg_policy_iow));
+}
+
+struct blkcg_gq *iowg_to_blkg(struct iow_gq *iowg)
+{
+	return pd_to_blkg(&iowg->pd);
+}
+
+static struct iow_cgrp *blkcg_to_iowc(struct blkcg *blkcg)
+{
+	return container_of(blkcg_to_cpd(blkcg, &blkcg_policy_iow),
+			    struct iow_cgrp, cpd);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Scale @abs_cost to the inverse of @hw_inuse.  The lower the hierarchical
+ * weight, the more expensive each IO.
+ */
+static u64 abs_cost_to_cost(u64 abs_cost, u32 hw_inuse)
+{
+	return DIV64_U64_ROUND_UP(abs_cost * HWEIGHT_WHOLE, hw_inuse);
+}
+
+static void iowg_commit_bio(struct iow_gq *iowg, struct bio *bio, u64 cost)
+{
+	bio->bi_ioweight_cost = cost;
+	atomic64_add(cost, &iowg->vtime);
+}
+
+#define CREATE_TRACE_POINTS
+#include <trace/events/ioweight.h>
+
+/* latency Qos params changed, update period_us and all the dependent params */
+static void iow_refresh_period_us(struct iow *iow)
+{
+	u32 ppm, lat, multi, period_us;
+
+	lockdep_assert_held(&iow->lock);
+
+	/* pick the higher latency target */
+	if (iow->params.qos[QOS_RLAT] >= iow->params.qos[QOS_WLAT]) {
+		ppm = iow->params.qos[QOS_RPPM];
+		lat = iow->params.qos[QOS_RLAT];
+	} else {
+		ppm = iow->params.qos[QOS_WPPM];
+		lat = iow->params.qos[QOS_WLAT];
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * We want the period to be long enough to contain a healthy number
+	 * of IOs while short enough for granular control.  Define it as a
+	 * multiple of the latency target.  Ideally, the multiplier should
+	 * be scaled according to the percentile so that it would nominally
+	 * contain a certain number of requests.  Let's be simpler and
+	 * scale it linearly so that it's 2x >= pct(90) and 10x at pct(50).
+	 */
+	if (ppm)
+		multi = max_t(u32, (MILLION - ppm) / 50000, 2);
+	else
+		multi = 2;
+	period_us = multi * lat;
+	period_us = clamp_t(u32, period_us, MIN_PERIOD, MAX_PERIOD);
+
+	/* calculate dependent params */
+	iow->period_us = period_us;
+	iow->margin_us = period_us * MARGIN_PCT / 100;
+	iow->inuse_margin_vtime = DIV64_U64_ROUND_UP(
+			period_us * VTIME_PER_USEC * INUSE_MARGIN_PCT, 100);
+}
+
+static int iow_autop_idx(struct iow *iow)
+{
+	int idx = iow->autop_idx;
+	const struct iow_params *p = &autop[idx];
+	u32 vrate_pct;
+	u64 now_ns;
+
+	/* rotational? */
+	if (!blk_queue_nonrot(iow->rqos.q))
+		return AUTOP_HDD;
+
+	/* handle SATA SSDs w/ broken NCQ */
+	if (blk_queue_depth(iow->rqos.q) == 1)
+		return AUTOP_SSD_QD1;
+
+	/* use one of the normal ssd sets */
+	if (idx < AUTOP_SSD_DFL)
+		return AUTOP_SSD_DFL;
+
+	/* if user is overriding anything, maintain what was there */
+	if (iow->user_qos_params || iow->user_cost_model)
+		return idx;
+
+	/* step up/down based on the vrate */
+	vrate_pct = div64_u64(atomic64_read(&iow->vtime_rate) * 100,
+			      VTIME_PER_USEC);
+	now_ns = ktime_get_ns();
+
+	if (p->too_fast_vrate_pct && p->too_fast_vrate_pct <= vrate_pct) {
+		if (!iow->autop_too_fast_at)
+			iow->autop_too_fast_at = now_ns;
+		if (now_ns - iow->autop_too_fast_at >= AUTOP_CYCLE_NSEC)
+			return idx + 1;
+	} else {
+		iow->autop_too_fast_at = 0;
+	}
+
+	if (p->too_slow_vrate_pct && p->too_slow_vrate_pct >= vrate_pct) {
+		if (!iow->autop_too_slow_at)
+			iow->autop_too_slow_at = now_ns;
+		if (now_ns - iow->autop_too_slow_at >= AUTOP_CYCLE_NSEC)
+			return idx - 1;
+	} else {
+		iow->autop_too_slow_at = 0;
+	}
+
+	return idx;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Take the followings as input
+ *
+ *  @bps	maximum sequential throughput
+ *  @seqiops	maximum sequential 4k iops
+ *  @randiops	maximum random 4k iops
+ *
+ * and calculate the linear model cost coefficients.
+ *
+ *  *@page	per-page cost		1s / (@bps / 4096)
+ *  *@seqio	base cost of a seq IO	max((1s / @seqiops) - *@page, 0)
+ *  @randiops	base cost of a rand IO	max((1s / @randiops) - *@page, 0)
+ */
+static void calc_lcoefs(u64 bps, u64 seqiops, u64 randiops,
+			u64 *page, u64 *seqio, u64 *randio)
+{
+	u64 v;
+
+	*page = *seqio = *randio = 0;
+
+	if (bps)
+		*page = DIV64_U64_ROUND_UP(VTIME_PER_SEC,
+					   DIV_ROUND_UP_ULL(bps, IOW_PAGE_SIZE));
+
+	if (seqiops) {
+		v = DIV64_U64_ROUND_UP(VTIME_PER_SEC, seqiops);
+		if (v > *page)
+			*seqio = v - *page;
+	}
+
+	if (randiops) {
+		v = DIV64_U64_ROUND_UP(VTIME_PER_SEC, randiops);
+		if (v > *page)
+			*randio = v - *page;
+	}
+}
+
+static void iow_refresh_lcoefs(struct iow *iow)
+{
+	u64 *u = iow->params.i_lcoefs;
+	u64 *c = iow->params.lcoefs;
+
+	calc_lcoefs(u[I_LCOEF_RBPS], u[I_LCOEF_RSEQIOPS], u[I_LCOEF_RRANDIOPS],
+		    &c[LCOEF_RPAGE], &c[LCOEF_RSEQIO], &c[LCOEF_RRANDIO]);
+	calc_lcoefs(u[I_LCOEF_WBPS], u[I_LCOEF_WSEQIOPS], u[I_LCOEF_WRANDIOPS],
+		    &c[LCOEF_WPAGE], &c[LCOEF_WSEQIO], &c[LCOEF_WRANDIO]);
+}
+
+static bool iow_refresh_params(struct iow *iow, bool force)
+{
+	const struct iow_params *p;
+	int idx;
+
+	lockdep_assert_held(&iow->lock);
+
+	idx = iow_autop_idx(iow);
+	p = &autop[idx];
+
+	if (idx == iow->autop_idx && !force)
+		return false;
+
+	if (idx != iow->autop_idx)
+		atomic64_set(&iow->vtime_rate, VTIME_PER_USEC);
+
+	iow->autop_idx = idx;
+	iow->autop_too_fast_at = 0;
+	iow->autop_too_slow_at = 0;
+
+	if (!iow->user_qos_params)
+		memcpy(iow->params.qos, p->qos, sizeof(p->qos));
+	if (!iow->user_cost_model)
+		memcpy(iow->params.i_lcoefs, p->i_lcoefs, sizeof(p->i_lcoefs));
+
+	iow_refresh_period_us(iow);
+	iow_refresh_lcoefs(iow);
+
+	iow->vrate_min = DIV64_U64_ROUND_UP((u64)iow->params.qos[QOS_MIN] *
+					    VTIME_PER_USEC, MILLION);
+	iow->vrate_max = div64_u64((u64)iow->params.qos[QOS_MAX] *
+				   VTIME_PER_USEC, MILLION);
+
+	return true;
+}
+
+/* take a snapshot of the current [v]time and vrate */
+static void iow_now(struct iow *iow, struct iow_now *now)
+{
+	unsigned seq;
+
+	now->now_ns = ktime_get();
+	now->now = ktime_to_us(now->now_ns);
+	now->vrate = atomic64_read(&iow->vtime_rate);
+
+	/*
+	 * The current vtime is
+	 *
+	 *   vtime at period start + (wallclock time since the start) * vrate
+	 *
+	 * As a consistent snapshot of `period_at_vtime` and `period_at` is
+	 * needed, they're seqcount protected.
+	 */
+	do {
+		seq = read_seqcount_begin(&iow->period_seqcount);
+		now->vnow = iow->period_at_vtime +
+			(now->now - iow->period_at) * now->vrate;
+	} while (read_seqcount_retry(&iow->period_seqcount, seq));
+}
+
+static void iow_start_period(struct iow *iow, struct iow_now *now)
+{
+	lockdep_assert_held(&iow->lock);
+	WARN_ON_ONCE(iow->running != IOW_RUNNING);
+
+	write_seqcount_begin(&iow->period_seqcount);
+	iow->period_at = now->now;
+	iow->period_at_vtime = now->vnow;
+	write_seqcount_end(&iow->period_seqcount);
+
+	iow->timer.expires = jiffies + usecs_to_jiffies(iow->period_us);
+	add_timer(&iow->timer);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Update @iowg's `active` and `inuse` to @active and @inuse, update level
+ * weight sums and propagate upwards accordingly.
+ */
+static void __propagate_active_weight(struct iow_gq *iowg, u32 active, u32 inuse)
+{
+	struct iow *iow = iowg->iow;
+	int lvl;
+
+	lockdep_assert_held(&iow->lock);
+
+	inuse = min(active, inuse);
+
+	for (lvl = iowg->level - 1; lvl >= 0; lvl--) {
+		struct iow_gq *parent = iowg->ancestors[lvl];
+		struct iow_gq *child = iowg->ancestors[lvl + 1];
+		u32 parent_active = 0, parent_inuse = 0;
+
+		/* update the level sums */
+		parent->child_active_sum += (s32)(active - child->active);
+		parent->child_inuse_sum += (s32)(inuse - child->inuse);
+		/* apply the udpates */
+		child->active = active;
+		child->inuse = inuse;
+
+		/*
+		 * The delta between inuse and active sums indicates that
+		 * that much of weight is being given away.  Parent's inuse
+		 * and active should reflect the ratio.
+		 */
+		if (parent->child_active_sum) {
+			parent_active = parent->weight;
+			parent_inuse = DIV64_U64_ROUND_UP(
+				parent_active * parent->child_inuse_sum,
+				parent->child_active_sum);
+		}
+
+		/* do we need to keep walking up? */
+		if (parent_active == parent->active &&
+		    parent_inuse == parent->inuse)
+			break;
+
+		active = parent_active;
+		inuse = parent_inuse;
+	}
+
+	iow->weights_updated = true;
+}
+
+static void commit_active_weights(struct iow *iow)
+{
+	lockdep_assert_held(&iow->lock);
+
+	if (iow->weights_updated) {
+		/* paired with rmb in current_hweight(), see there */
+		smp_wmb();
+		atomic_inc(&iow->hweight_gen);
+		iow->weights_updated = false;
+	}
+}
+
+static void propagate_active_weight(struct iow_gq *iowg, u32 active, u32 inuse)
+{
+	__propagate_active_weight(iowg, active, inuse);
+	commit_active_weights(iowg->iow);
+}
+
+static void current_hweight(struct iow_gq *iowg, u32 *hw_activep, u32 *hw_inusep)
+{
+	struct iow *iow = iowg->iow;
+	int lvl;
+	u32 hwa, hwi;
+	int iow_gen;
+
+	/* hot path - if uptodate, use cached */
+	iow_gen = atomic_read(&iow->hweight_gen);
+	if (iow_gen == iowg->hweight_gen)
+		goto out;
+
+	/*
+	 * Paired with wmb in commit_active_weights().  If we saw the
+	 * updated hweight_gen, all the weight updates from
+	 * __propagate_active_weight() are visible too.
+	 *
+	 * We can race with weight updates during calculation and get it
+	 * wrong.  However, hweight_gen would have changed and a future
+	 * reader will recalculate and we're guaranteed to discard the
+	 * wrong result soon.
+	 */
+	smp_rmb();
+
+	hwa = hwi = HWEIGHT_WHOLE;
+	for (lvl = 0; lvl <= iowg->level - 1; lvl++) {
+		struct iow_gq *parent = iowg->ancestors[lvl];
+		struct iow_gq *child = iowg->ancestors[lvl + 1];
+		u32 active_sum = READ_ONCE(parent->child_active_sum);
+		u32 inuse_sum = READ_ONCE(parent->child_inuse_sum);
+		u32 active = READ_ONCE(child->active);
+		u32 inuse = READ_ONCE(child->inuse);
+
+		if (!active_sum)
+			continue;
+
+		active_sum = max(active, active_sum);
+		hwa = hwa * active / active_sum;	/* max 16bits * 10000 */
+
+		inuse_sum = max(inuse, inuse_sum);
+		hwi = hwi * inuse / inuse_sum;		/* max 16bits * 10000 */
+	}
+
+	iowg->hweight_active = max_t(u32, hwa, 1);
+	iowg->hweight_inuse = max_t(u32, hwi, 1);
+	iowg->hweight_gen = iow_gen;
+out:
+	if (hw_activep)
+		*hw_activep = iowg->hweight_active;
+	if (hw_inusep)
+		*hw_inusep = iowg->hweight_inuse;
+}
+
+static void weight_updated(struct iow_gq *iowg)
+{
+	struct iow *iow = iowg->iow;
+	struct blkcg_gq *blkg = iowg_to_blkg(iowg);
+	struct iow_cgrp *iowc = blkcg_to_iowc(blkg->blkcg);
+	u32 weight;
+
+	lockdep_assert_held(&iow->lock);
+
+	weight = iowg->cfg_weight ?: iowc->dfl_weight;
+	if (weight != iowg->weight && iowg->active)
+		propagate_active_weight(iowg, weight,
+			DIV64_U64_ROUND_UP(iowg->inuse * weight, iowg->weight));
+	iowg->weight = weight;
+}
+
+static bool iowg_activate(struct iow_gq *iowg, struct iow_now *now)
+{
+	struct iow *iow = iowg->iow;
+	u64 last_period, cur_period, max_period_delta;
+	u64 vtime, vmargin, vmin;
+	int i;
+
+	/*
+	 * If seem to be already active, just update the stamp to tell the
+	 * timer that we're still active.  We don't mind occassional races.
+	 */
+	if (!list_empty(&iowg->active_list)) {
+		iow_now(iow, now);
+		cur_period = atomic64_read(&iow->cur_period);
+		if (atomic64_read(&iowg->active_period) != cur_period)
+			atomic64_set(&iowg->active_period, cur_period);
+		return true;
+	}
+
+	/* racy check on internal node IOs, treat as root level IOs */
+	if (iowg->child_active_sum)
+		return false;
+
+	spin_lock_irq(&iow->lock);
+
+	iow_now(iow, now);
+
+	/* update period */
+	cur_period = atomic64_read(&iow->cur_period);
+	last_period = atomic64_read(&iowg->active_period);
+	atomic64_set(&iowg->active_period, cur_period);
+
+	/* already activated or breaking leaf-only constraint? */
+	for (i = iowg->level; i > 0; i--)
+		if (!list_empty(&iowg->active_list))
+			goto fail_unlock;
+	if (iowg->child_active_sum)
+		goto fail_unlock;
+
+	/*
+	 * vtime may wrap when vrate is raised substantially due to
+	 * underestimated IO costs.  Look at the period and ignore its
+	 * vtime if the iowg has been idle for too long.  Also, cap the
+	 * budget it can start with to the margin.
+	 */
+	max_period_delta = DIV64_U64_ROUND_UP(VTIME_VALID_DUR, iow->period_us);
+	vtime = atomic64_read(&iowg->vtime);
+	vmargin = iow->margin_us * now->vrate;
+	vmin = now->vnow - vmargin;
+
+	if (last_period + max_period_delta < cur_period ||
+	    time_before64(vtime, vmin)) {
+		atomic64_add(vmin - vtime, &iowg->vtime);
+		atomic64_add(vmin - vtime, &iowg->done_vtime);
+		vtime = vmin;
+	}
+
+	/* activate, propagate weight and start period timer if not running */
+	iowg->hweight_gen = atomic_read(&iow->hweight_gen);
+	list_add(&iowg->active_list, &iow->active_iowgs);
+	propagate_active_weight(iowg, iowg->weight,
+				iowg->last_inuse ?: iowg->weight);
+
+	TRACE_IOWG_PATH(iowg_activate, iowg, now,
+			last_period, cur_period, vtime);
+
+	iowg->last_vtime = vtime;
+
+	if (iow->running == IOW_IDLE) {
+		iow->running = IOW_RUNNING;
+		iow_start_period(iow, now);
+	}
+
+	spin_unlock_irq(&iow->lock);
+	return true;
+
+fail_unlock:
+	spin_unlock_irq(&iow->lock);
+	return false;
+}
+
+static int iowg_wake_fn(struct wait_queue_entry *wq_entry, unsigned mode,
+			int flags, void *key)
+{
+	struct iowg_wait *wait = container_of(wq_entry, struct iowg_wait, wait);
+	struct iowg_wake_ctx *ctx = (struct iowg_wake_ctx *)key;
+	u64 cost = abs_cost_to_cost(wait->abs_cost, ctx->hw_inuse);
+
+	ctx->vbudget -= cost;
+
+	if (ctx->vbudget < 0)
+		return -1;
+
+	iowg_commit_bio(ctx->iowg, wait->bio, cost);
+
+	/*
+	 * autoremove_wake_function() removes the wait entry only when it
+	 * actually changed the task state.  We want the wait always
+	 * removed.  Remove explicitly and use default_wake_function().
+	 */
+	list_del_init(&wq_entry->entry);
+	wait->committed = true;
+
+	default_wake_function(wq_entry, mode, flags, key);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static void iowg_kick_waitq(struct iow_gq *iowg, struct iow_now *now)
+{
+	struct iow *iow = iowg->iow;
+	struct iowg_wake_ctx ctx = { .iowg = iowg };
+	u64 margin_ns = (u64)(iow->period_us *
+			      WAITQ_TIMER_MARGIN_PCT / 100) * NSEC_PER_USEC;
+	u64 vshortage, expires, oexpires;
+
+	lockdep_assert_held(&iowg->waitq.lock);
+
+	/*
+	 * Wake up the ones which are due and see how much vtime we'll need
+	 * for the next one.
+	 */
+	current_hweight(iowg, NULL, &ctx.hw_inuse);
+	ctx.vbudget = now->vnow - atomic64_read(&iowg->vtime);
+	__wake_up_locked_key(&iowg->waitq, TASK_NORMAL, &ctx);
+	if (!waitqueue_active(&iowg->waitq))
+		return;
+	if (WARN_ON_ONCE(ctx.vbudget >= 0))
+		return;
+
+	/* determine next wakeup, add a quarter margin to guarantee chunking */
+	vshortage = -ctx.vbudget;
+	expires = now->now_ns +
+		DIV64_U64_ROUND_UP(vshortage, now->vrate) * NSEC_PER_USEC;
+	expires += margin_ns / 4;
+
+	/* if already active and close enough, don't bother */
+	oexpires = ktime_to_ns(hrtimer_get_softexpires(&iowg->waitq_timer));
+	if (hrtimer_is_queued(&iowg->waitq_timer) &&
+	    abs(oexpires - expires) <= margin_ns / 4)
+		return;
+
+	hrtimer_start_range_ns(&iowg->waitq_timer, ns_to_ktime(expires),
+			       margin_ns / 4, HRTIMER_MODE_ABS);
+}
+
+static enum hrtimer_restart iowg_waitq_timer_fn(struct hrtimer *timer)
+{
+	struct iow_gq *iowg = container_of(timer, struct iow_gq, waitq_timer);
+	struct iow_now now;
+	unsigned long flags;
+
+	iow_now(iowg->iow, &now);
+
+	spin_lock_irqsave(&iowg->waitq.lock, flags);
+	iowg_kick_waitq(iowg, &now);
+	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&iowg->waitq.lock, flags);
+
+	return HRTIMER_NORESTART;
+}
+
+static void iowg_kick_delay(struct iow_gq *iowg, struct iow_now *now, u64 cost)
+{
+	struct iow *iow = iowg->iow;
+	struct blkcg_gq *blkg = iowg_to_blkg(iowg);
+	u64 vtime = atomic64_read(&iowg->vtime);
+	u64 vmargin = iow->margin_us * now->vrate;
+	u64 margin_ns = iow->margin_us * NSEC_PER_USEC;
+	u64 expires, oexpires;
+
+	/* clear or maintain depending on the overage */
+	if (time_before_eq64(vtime, now->vnow)) {
+		blkcg_clear_delay(blkg);
+		return;
+	}
+	if (!atomic_read(&blkg->use_delay) &&
+	    time_before_eq64(vtime, now->vnow + vmargin))
+		return;
+
+	/* use delay */
+	if (cost) {
+		u64 cost_ns = DIV64_U64_ROUND_UP(cost * NSEC_PER_USEC,
+						 now->vrate);
+		blkcg_add_delay(blkg, now->now_ns, cost_ns);
+	}
+	blkcg_use_delay(blkg);
+
+	expires = now->now_ns + DIV64_U64_ROUND_UP(vtime - now->vnow,
+						   now->vrate) * NSEC_PER_USEC;
+
+	/* if already active and close enough, don't bother */
+	oexpires = ktime_to_ns(hrtimer_get_softexpires(&iowg->delay_timer));
+	if (hrtimer_is_queued(&iowg->delay_timer) &&
+	    abs(oexpires - expires) <= margin_ns / 4)
+		return;
+
+	hrtimer_start_range_ns(&iowg->delay_timer, ns_to_ktime(expires),
+			       margin_ns / 4, HRTIMER_MODE_ABS);
+}
+
+static enum hrtimer_restart iowg_delay_timer_fn(struct hrtimer *timer)
+{
+	struct iow_gq *iowg = container_of(timer, struct iow_gq, delay_timer);
+	struct iow_now now;
+
+	iow_now(iowg->iow, &now);
+	iowg_kick_delay(iowg, &now, 0);
+
+	return HRTIMER_NORESTART;
+}
+
+static void iow_lat_stat(struct iow *iow, u32 *missed_ppm_ar, u32 *rq_wait_pct_p)
+{
+	u32 nr_met[2] = { };
+	u32 nr_missed[2] = { };
+	u64 rq_wait_ns = 0;
+	int cpu, rw;
+
+	for_each_online_cpu(cpu) {
+		struct iow_pcpu_stat *stat = per_cpu_ptr(iow->pcpu_stat, cpu);
+		u64 this_rq_wait_ns;
+
+		for (rw = READ; rw <= WRITE; rw++) {
+			u32 this_met = READ_ONCE(stat->missed[rw].nr_met);
+			u32 this_missed = READ_ONCE(stat->missed[rw].nr_missed);
+
+			nr_met[rw] += this_met - stat->missed[rw].last_met;
+			nr_missed[rw] += this_missed - stat->missed[rw].last_missed;
+			stat->missed[rw].last_met = this_met;
+			stat->missed[rw].last_missed = this_missed;
+		}
+
+		this_rq_wait_ns = READ_ONCE(stat->rq_wait_ns);
+		rq_wait_ns += this_rq_wait_ns - stat->last_rq_wait_ns;
+		stat->last_rq_wait_ns = this_rq_wait_ns;
+	}
+
+	for (rw = READ; rw <= WRITE; rw++) {
+		if (nr_met[rw] + nr_missed[rw])
+			missed_ppm_ar[rw] =
+				DIV64_U64_ROUND_UP((u64)nr_missed[rw] * MILLION,
+						   nr_met[rw] + nr_missed[rw]);
+		else
+			missed_ppm_ar[rw] = 0;
+	}
+
+	*rq_wait_pct_p = div64_u64(rq_wait_ns * 100,
+				   iow->period_us * NSEC_PER_USEC);
+}
+
+/* was iowg idle this period? */
+static bool iowg_is_idle(struct iow_gq *iowg)
+{
+	struct iow *iow = iowg->iow;
+
+	/* did something get issued this period? */
+	if (atomic64_read(&iowg->active_period) ==
+	    atomic64_read(&iow->cur_period))
+		return false;
+
+	/* is something in flight? */
+	if (atomic64_read(&iowg->done_vtime) < atomic64_read(&iowg->vtime))
+		return false;
+
+	return true;
+}
+
+/* returns usage with margin added if surplus is large enough */
+static u32 surplus_adjusted_hweight_inuse(u32 usage, u32 hw_inuse)
+{
+	/* add margin */
+	usage = DIV_ROUND_UP(usage * SURPLUS_SCALE_PCT, 100);
+	usage += SURPLUS_SCALE_ABS;
+
+	/* don't bother if the surplus is too small */
+	if (usage + SURPLUS_MIN_ADJ_DELTA > hw_inuse)
+		return 0;
+
+	return usage;
+}
+
+static void iow_timer_fn(struct timer_list *timer)
+{
+	struct iow *iow = container_of(timer, struct iow, timer);
+	struct iow_gq *iowg, *tiowg;
+	struct iow_now now;
+	int nr_surpluses = 0, nr_shortages = 0, nr_lagging = 0;
+	u32 ppm_rthr = MILLION - iow->params.qos[QOS_RPPM];
+	u32 ppm_wthr = MILLION - iow->params.qos[QOS_WPPM];
+	u32 missed_ppm[2], rq_wait_pct;
+	u64 period_vtime;
+	int i;
+
+	/* how were the latencies during the period? */
+	iow_lat_stat(iow, missed_ppm, &rq_wait_pct);
+
+	/* take care of active iowgs */
+	spin_lock_irq(&iow->lock);
+
+	iow_now(iow, &now);
+
+	period_vtime = now.vnow - iow->period_at_vtime;
+	if (WARN_ON_ONCE(!period_vtime)) {
+		spin_unlock_irq(&iow->lock);
+		return;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Waiters determine the sleep durations based on the vrate they
+	 * saw at the time of sleep.  If vrate has increased, some waiters
+	 * could be sleeping for too long.  Wake up tardy waiters which
+	 * should have woken up in the last period and expire idle iowgs.
+	 */
+	list_for_each_entry_safe(iowg, tiowg, &iow->active_iowgs, active_list) {
+		if (!waitqueue_active(&iowg->waitq) && !iowg_is_idle(iowg))
+			continue;
+
+		spin_lock(&iowg->waitq.lock);
+
+		if (waitqueue_active(&iowg->waitq)) {
+			/* might be oversleeping vtime / hweight changes, kick */
+			iowg_kick_waitq(iowg, &now);
+			iowg_kick_delay(iowg, &now, 0);
+		} else if (iowg_is_idle(iowg)) {
+			/* no waiter and idle, deactivate */
+			iowg->last_inuse = iowg->inuse;
+			__propagate_active_weight(iowg, 0, 0);
+			list_del_init(&iowg->active_list);
+		}
+
+		spin_unlock(&iowg->waitq.lock);
+	}
+	commit_active_weights(iow);
+
+	/* calc usages and see whether some weights need to be moved around */
+	list_for_each_entry(iowg, &iow->active_iowgs, active_list) {
+		u64 vdone, vtime, vusage, vmargin, vmin;
+		u32 hw_active, hw_inuse, usage;
+
+		/*
+		 * Collect unused and wind vtime closer to vnow to prevent
+		 * iowgs from accumulating a large amount of budget.
+		 */
+		vdone = atomic64_read(&iowg->done_vtime);
+		vtime = atomic64_read(&iowg->vtime);
+		current_hweight(iowg, &hw_active, &hw_inuse);
+
+		/*
+		 * Latency QoS detection doesn't account for IOs which are
+		 * in-flight for longer than a period.  Detect them by
+		 * comparing vdone against period start.  If lagging behind
+		 * IOs from past periods, don't increase vrate.
+		 */
+		if (!atomic_read(&iowg_to_blkg(iowg)->use_delay) &&
+		    time_after64(vtime, vdone) &&
+		    time_after64(vtime, now.vnow -
+				 MAX_LAGGING_PERIODS * period_vtime) &&
+		    time_before64(vdone, now.vnow - period_vtime))
+			nr_lagging++;
+
+		if (waitqueue_active(&iowg->waitq))
+			vusage = now.vnow - iowg->last_vtime;
+		else if (time_before64(iowg->last_vtime, vtime))
+			vusage = vtime - iowg->last_vtime;
+		else
+			vusage = 0;
+
+		iowg->last_vtime += vusage;
+		/*
+		 * Factor in in-flight vtime into vusage to avoid
+		 * high-latency completions appearing as idle.  This should
+		 * be done after the above ->last_time adjustment.
+		 */
+		vusage = max(vusage, vtime - vdone);
+
+		/* calculate hweight based usage ratio and record */
+		if (vusage) {
+			usage = DIV64_U64_ROUND_UP(vusage * hw_inuse,
+						   period_vtime);
+			iowg->usage_idx = (iowg->usage_idx + 1) % NR_USAGE_SLOTS;
+			iowg->usages[iowg->usage_idx] = usage;
+		} else {
+			usage = 0;
+		}
+
+		/* see whether there's surplus vtime */
+		vmargin = iow->margin_us * now.vrate;
+		vmin = now.vnow - vmargin;
+
+		iowg->has_surplus = false;
+
+		if (!waitqueue_active(&iowg->waitq) &&
+		    time_before64(vtime, vmin)) {
+			u64 delta = vmin - vtime;
+
+			/* throw away surplus vtime */
+			atomic64_add(delta, &iowg->vtime);
+			atomic64_add(delta, &iowg->done_vtime);
+			iowg->last_vtime += delta;
+			/* if usage is sufficiently low, maybe it can donate */
+			if (surplus_adjusted_hweight_inuse(usage, hw_inuse)) {
+				iowg->has_surplus = true;
+				nr_surpluses++;
+			}
+		} else if (hw_inuse < hw_active) {
+			u32 new_hwi, new_inuse;
+
+			/* was donating but might need to take back some */
+			if (waitqueue_active(&iowg->waitq)) {
+				new_hwi = hw_active;
+			} else {
+				new_hwi = max(hw_inuse,
+					      usage * SURPLUS_SCALE_PCT / 100 +
+					      SURPLUS_SCALE_ABS);
+			}
+
+			new_inuse = div64_u64((u64)iowg->inuse * new_hwi,
+					      hw_inuse);
+			new_inuse = clamp_t(u32, new_inuse, 1, iowg->active);
+
+			if (new_inuse > iowg->inuse) {
+				TRACE_IOWG_PATH(inuse_takeback, iowg, &now,
+						iowg->inuse, new_inuse,
+						hw_inuse, new_hwi);
+				__propagate_active_weight(iowg, iowg->weight,
+							  new_inuse);
+			}
+		} else {
+			/* genuninely out of vtime */
+			nr_shortages++;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (!nr_shortages || !nr_surpluses)
+		goto skip_surplus_transfers;
+
+	/* there are both shortages and surpluses, transfer surpluses */
+	list_for_each_entry(iowg, &iow->active_iowgs, active_list) {
+		u32 usage, hw_active, hw_inuse, new_hwi, new_inuse;
+		int nr_valid = 0;
+
+		if (!iowg->has_surplus)
+			continue;
+
+		/* base the decision on max historical usage */
+		for (i = 0, usage = 0; i < NR_USAGE_SLOTS; i++) {
+			if (iowg->usages[i]) {
+				usage = max(usage, iowg->usages[i]);
+				nr_valid++;
+			}
+		}
+		if (nr_valid < MIN_VALID_USAGES)
+			continue;
+
+		current_hweight(iowg, &hw_active, &hw_inuse);
+		new_hwi = surplus_adjusted_hweight_inuse(usage, hw_inuse);
+		if (!new_hwi)
+			continue;
+
+		new_inuse = DIV64_U64_ROUND_UP((u64)iowg->inuse * new_hwi,
+					       hw_inuse);
+		if (new_inuse < iowg->inuse) {
+			TRACE_IOWG_PATH(inuse_giveaway, iowg, &now,
+					iowg->inuse, new_inuse,
+					hw_inuse, new_hwi);
+			__propagate_active_weight(iowg, iowg->weight, new_inuse);
+		}
+	}
+skip_surplus_transfers:
+	commit_active_weights(iow);
+
+	/*
+	 * If q is getting clogged or we're missing too much, we're issuing
+	 * too much IO and should lower vtime rate.  If we're not missing
+	 * and experiencing shortages but not surpluses, we're too stingy
+	 * and should increase vtime rate.
+	 */
+	if (rq_wait_pct > RQ_WAIT_BUSY_PCT ||
+	    missed_ppm[READ] > ppm_rthr ||
+	    missed_ppm[WRITE] > ppm_wthr) {
+		iow->busy_level = max(iow->busy_level, 0);
+		iow->busy_level++;
+	} else if (nr_lagging) {
+		iow->busy_level = max(iow->busy_level, 0);
+	} else if (nr_shortages && !nr_surpluses &&
+		   rq_wait_pct <= RQ_WAIT_BUSY_PCT * UNBUSY_THR_PCT / 100 &&
+		   missed_ppm[READ] <= ppm_rthr * UNBUSY_THR_PCT / 100 &&
+		   missed_ppm[WRITE] <= ppm_wthr * UNBUSY_THR_PCT / 100) {
+		iow->busy_level = min(iow->busy_level, 0);
+		iow->busy_level--;
+	} else {
+		iow->busy_level = 0;
+	}
+
+	iow->busy_level = clamp(iow->busy_level, -1000, 1000);
+
+	if (iow->busy_level) {
+		u64 vrate = atomic64_read(&iow->vtime_rate);
+		u64 vrate_min = iow->vrate_min, vrate_max = iow->vrate_max;
+
+		/* rq_wait signal is always reliable, ignore user vrate_min */
+		if (rq_wait_pct > RQ_WAIT_BUSY_PCT)
+			vrate_min = VRATE_MIN;
+
+		/*
+		 * If vrate is out of bounds, apply clamp gradually as the
+		 * bounds can change abruptly.  Otherwise, apply busy_level
+		 * based adjustment.
+		 */
+		if (vrate < vrate_min) {
+			vrate = div64_u64(vrate * (100 + VRATE_CLAMP_ADJ_PCT),
+					  100);
+			vrate = min(vrate, vrate_min);
+		} else if (vrate > vrate_max) {
+			vrate = div64_u64(vrate * (100 - VRATE_CLAMP_ADJ_PCT),
+					  100);
+			vrate = max(vrate, vrate_max);
+		} else {
+			int idx = min_t(int, abs(iow->busy_level),
+					ARRAY_SIZE(vrate_adj_pct) - 1);
+			u32 adj_pct = vrate_adj_pct[idx];
+
+			if (iow->busy_level > 0)
+				adj_pct = 100 - adj_pct;
+			else
+				adj_pct = 100 + adj_pct;
+
+			vrate = clamp(DIV64_U64_ROUND_UP(vrate * adj_pct, 100),
+				      vrate_min, vrate_max);
+		}
+
+		trace_ioweight_iow_vrate_adj(iow, vrate, &missed_ppm, rq_wait_pct,
+					     nr_lagging, nr_shortages,
+					     nr_surpluses);
+
+		atomic64_set(&iow->vtime_rate, vrate);
+		iow->inuse_margin_vtime = DIV64_U64_ROUND_UP(
+			iow->period_us * vrate * INUSE_MARGIN_PCT, 100);
+	}
+
+	iow_refresh_params(iow, false);
+
+	/*
+	 * This period is done.  Move onto the next one.  If nothing's
+	 * going on with the device, stop the timer.
+	 */
+	atomic64_inc(&iow->cur_period);
+
+	if (iow->running != IOW_STOP) {
+		if (!list_empty(&iow->active_iowgs)) {
+			iow_start_period(iow, &now);
+		} else {
+			iow->busy_level = 0;
+			iow->running = IOW_IDLE;
+		}
+	}
+
+	spin_unlock_irq(&iow->lock);
+}
+
+static void calc_vtime_cost_builtin(struct bio *bio, struct iow_gq *iowg,
+				    bool is_merge, u64 *costp)
+{
+	struct iow *iow = iowg->iow;
+	u64 coef_seqio, coef_randio, coef_page;
+	u64 pages = max_t(u64, bio_sectors(bio) >> IOW_SECT_TO_PAGE_SHIFT, 1);
+	u64 seek_pages = 0;
+	u64 cost = 0;
+
+	switch (bio_op(bio)) {
+	case REQ_OP_READ:
+		coef_seqio	= iow->params.lcoefs[LCOEF_RSEQIO];
+		coef_randio	= iow->params.lcoefs[LCOEF_RRANDIO];
+		coef_page	= iow->params.lcoefs[LCOEF_RPAGE];
+		break;
+	case REQ_OP_WRITE:
+		coef_seqio	= iow->params.lcoefs[LCOEF_WSEQIO];
+		coef_randio	= iow->params.lcoefs[LCOEF_WRANDIO];
+		coef_page	= iow->params.lcoefs[LCOEF_WPAGE];
+		break;
+	default:
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	if (iowg->cursor) {
+		seek_pages = abs(bio->bi_iter.bi_sector - iowg->cursor);
+		seek_pages >>= IOW_SECT_TO_PAGE_SHIFT;
+	}
+
+	if (!is_merge) {
+		if (seek_pages > LCOEF_RANDIO_PAGES) {
+			cost += coef_randio;
+		} else {
+			cost += coef_seqio;
+		}
+	}
+	cost += pages * coef_page;
+out:
+	*costp = cost;
+}
+
+static u64 calc_vtime_cost(struct bio *bio, struct iow_gq *iowg, bool is_merge)
+{
+	u64 cost;
+
+	calc_vtime_cost_builtin(bio, iowg, is_merge, &cost);
+	return cost;
+}
+
+static void iow_rqos_throttle(struct rq_qos *rqos, struct bio *bio)
+{
+	struct blkcg_gq *blkg = bio->bi_blkg;
+	struct iow *iow = rqos_to_iow(rqos);
+	struct iow_gq *iowg = blkg_to_iowg(blkg);
+	struct iow_now now;
+	struct iowg_wait wait;
+	u32 hw_active, hw_inuse;
+	u64 abs_cost, cost, vtime;
+
+	/* bypass IOs if disabled or for root cgroup */
+	if (!iow->enabled || !iowg->level)
+		return;
+
+	/* always activate so that even 0 cost IOs get protected to some level */
+	if (!iowg_activate(iowg, &now))
+		return;
+
+	/* calculate the absolute vtime cost */
+	abs_cost = calc_vtime_cost(bio, iowg, false);
+	if (!abs_cost)
+		return;
+
+	iowg->cursor = bio_end_sector(bio);
+
+	vtime = atomic64_read(&iowg->vtime);
+	current_hweight(iowg, &hw_active, &hw_inuse);
+
+	if (hw_inuse < hw_active &&
+	    time_after_eq64(vtime + iow->inuse_margin_vtime, now.vnow)) {
+		TRACE_IOWG_PATH(inuse_reset, iowg, &now,
+				iowg->inuse, iowg->weight, hw_inuse, hw_active);
+		spin_lock_irq(&iow->lock);
+		propagate_active_weight(iowg, iowg->weight, iowg->weight);
+		spin_unlock_irq(&iow->lock);
+		current_hweight(iowg, &hw_active, &hw_inuse);
+	}
+
+	cost = abs_cost_to_cost(abs_cost, hw_inuse);
+
+	/*
+	 * If no one's waiting and within budget, issue right away.  The
+	 * tests are racy but the races aren't systemic - we only miss once
+	 * in a while which is fine.
+	 */
+	if (!waitqueue_active(&iowg->waitq) &&
+	    time_before_eq64(vtime + cost, now.vnow)) {
+		iowg_commit_bio(iowg, bio, cost);
+		return;
+	}
+
+	if (bio_issue_as_root_blkg(bio) || fatal_signal_pending(current)) {
+		iowg_commit_bio(iowg, bio, cost);
+		iowg_kick_delay(iowg, &now, cost);
+		return;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Append self to the waitq and schedule the wakeup timer if we're
+	 * the first waiter.  The timer duration is calculated based on the
+	 * current vrate.  vtime and hweight changes can make it too short
+	 * or too long.  Each wait entry records the absolute cost it's
+	 * waiting for to allow re-evaluation using a custom wait entry.
+	 *
+	 * If too short, the timer simply reschedules itself.  If too long,
+	 * the period timer will notice and trigger wakeups.
+	 *
+	 * All waiters are on iowg->waitq and the wait states are
+	 * synchronized using waitq.lock.
+	 */
+	spin_lock_irq(&iowg->waitq.lock);
+
+	/*
+	 * We activated above but w/o any synchronization.  Deactivation is
+	 * synchronized with waitq.lock and we won't get deactivated as
+	 * long as we're waiting, so we're good if we're activated here.
+	 * In the unlikely case that we are deactivated, just issue the IO.
+	 */
+	if (unlikely(list_empty(&iowg->active_list))) {
+		spin_unlock_irq(&iowg->waitq.lock);
+		iowg_commit_bio(iowg, bio, cost);
+		return;
+	}
+
+	init_waitqueue_func_entry(&wait.wait, iowg_wake_fn);
+	wait.wait.private = current;
+	wait.bio = bio;
+	wait.abs_cost = abs_cost;
+	wait.committed = false;	/* will be set true by waker */
+
+	__add_wait_queue_entry_tail(&iowg->waitq, &wait.wait);
+	iowg_kick_waitq(iowg, &now);
+
+	spin_unlock_irq(&iowg->waitq.lock);
+
+	while (true) {
+		set_current_state(TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
+		if (wait.committed)
+			break;
+		io_schedule();
+	}
+
+	/* waker already committed us, proceed */
+	finish_wait(&iowg->waitq, &wait.wait);
+}
+
+static void iow_rqos_merge(struct rq_qos *rqos, struct request *rq,
+			   struct bio *bio)
+{
+	struct iow_gq *iowg = blkg_to_iowg(bio->bi_blkg);
+	sector_t bio_end = bio_end_sector(bio);
+	u32 hw_active, hw_inuse;
+	u64 abs_cost, cost;
+
+	/* add iff the existing request has cost assigned */
+	if (!rq->bio || !rq->bio->bi_ioweight_cost)
+		return;
+
+	abs_cost = calc_vtime_cost(bio, iowg, true);
+	if (!abs_cost)
+		return;
+
+	/* update cursor if backmerging into the request at the cursor */
+	if (blk_rq_pos(rq) < bio_end &&
+	    blk_rq_pos(rq) + blk_rq_sectors(rq) == iowg->cursor)
+		iowg->cursor = bio_end;
+
+	current_hweight(iowg, &hw_active, &hw_inuse);
+	cost = div64_u64(abs_cost * HWEIGHT_WHOLE, hw_inuse);
+	bio->bi_ioweight_cost = cost;
+
+	atomic64_add(cost, &iowg->vtime);
+}
+
+static void iow_rqos_done_bio(struct rq_qos *rqos, struct bio *bio)
+{
+	struct iow_gq *iowg = blkg_to_iowg(bio->bi_blkg);
+
+	if (iowg && bio->bi_ioweight_cost)
+		atomic64_add(bio->bi_ioweight_cost, &iowg->done_vtime);
+}
+
+static void iow_rqos_done(struct rq_qos *rqos, struct request *rq)
+{
+	struct iow *iow = rqos_to_iow(rqos);
+	u64 on_q_ns, rq_wait_ns;
+	int pidx, rw;
+
+	if (!iow->enabled || !rq->pre_start_time_ns || !rq->start_time_ns)
+		return;
+
+	switch (req_op(rq) & REQ_OP_MASK) {
+	case REQ_OP_READ:
+		pidx = QOS_RLAT;
+		rw = READ;
+		break;
+	case REQ_OP_WRITE:
+		pidx = QOS_WLAT;
+		rw = WRITE;
+		break;
+	default:
+		return;
+	}
+
+	on_q_ns = ktime_get_ns() - rq->pre_start_time_ns;
+	rq_wait_ns = rq->start_time_ns - rq->pre_start_time_ns;
+
+	if (on_q_ns <= iow->params.qos[pidx] * NSEC_PER_USEC)
+		this_cpu_inc(iow->pcpu_stat->missed[rw].nr_met);
+	else
+		this_cpu_inc(iow->pcpu_stat->missed[rw].nr_missed);
+
+	this_cpu_add(iow->pcpu_stat->rq_wait_ns, rq_wait_ns);
+}
+
+static void iow_rqos_queue_depth_changed(struct rq_qos *rqos)
+{
+	struct iow *iow = rqos_to_iow(rqos);
+
+	spin_lock_irq(&iow->lock);
+	iow_refresh_params(iow, false);
+	spin_unlock_irq(&iow->lock);
+}
+
+static void iow_rqos_exit(struct rq_qos *rqos)
+{
+	struct iow *iow = rqos_to_iow(rqos);
+
+	blkcg_deactivate_policy(rqos->q, &blkcg_policy_iow);
+
+	spin_lock_irq(&iow->lock);
+	iow->running = IOW_STOP;
+	spin_unlock_irq(&iow->lock);
+
+	del_timer_sync(&iow->timer);
+	free_percpu(iow->pcpu_stat);
+	kfree(iow);
+}
+
+static struct rq_qos_ops iow_rqos_ops = {
+	.throttle = iow_rqos_throttle,
+	.merge = iow_rqos_merge,
+	.done_bio = iow_rqos_done_bio,
+	.done = iow_rqos_done,
+	.queue_depth_changed = iow_rqos_queue_depth_changed,
+	.exit = iow_rqos_exit,
+};
+
+static int blk_ioweight_init(struct request_queue *q)
+{
+	struct iow *iow;
+	struct rq_qos *rqos;
+	int ret;
+
+	iow = kzalloc(sizeof(*iow), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!iow)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+
+	iow->pcpu_stat = alloc_percpu(struct iow_pcpu_stat);
+	if (!iow->pcpu_stat) {
+		kfree(iow);
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	}
+
+	rqos = &iow->rqos;
+	rqos->id = RQ_QOS_WEIGHT;
+	rqos->ops = &iow_rqos_ops;
+	rqos->q = q;
+
+	spin_lock_init(&iow->lock);
+	timer_setup(&iow->timer, iow_timer_fn, 0);
+	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&iow->active_iowgs);
+
+	iow->running = IOW_IDLE;
+	atomic64_set(&iow->vtime_rate, VTIME_PER_USEC);
+	seqcount_init(&iow->period_seqcount);
+	iow->period_at = ktime_to_us(ktime_get());
+	atomic64_set(&iow->cur_period, 0);
+	atomic_set(&iow->hweight_gen, 0);
+
+	spin_lock_irq(&iow->lock);
+	iow->autop_idx = AUTOP_INVALID;
+	iow_refresh_params(iow, true);
+	spin_unlock_irq(&iow->lock);
+
+	rq_qos_add(q, rqos);
+	ret = blkcg_activate_policy(q, &blkcg_policy_iow);
+	if (ret) {
+		rq_qos_del(q, rqos);
+		kfree(iow);
+		return ret;
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static struct blkcg_policy_data *iow_cpd_alloc(gfp_t gfp)
+{
+	struct iow_cgrp *iowc;
+
+	iowc = kzalloc(sizeof(struct iow_cgrp), gfp);
+	iowc->dfl_weight = CGROUP_WEIGHT_DFL;
+
+	return &iowc->cpd;
+}
+
+static void iow_cpd_free(struct blkcg_policy_data *cpd)
+{
+	kfree(container_of(cpd, struct iow_cgrp, cpd));
+}
+
+static struct blkg_policy_data *iow_pd_alloc(gfp_t gfp, struct request_queue *q,
+					     struct blkcg *blkcg)
+{
+	int levels = blkcg->css.cgroup->level + 1;
+	struct iow_gq *iowg;
+
+	iowg = kzalloc_node(sizeof(*iowg) + levels * sizeof(iowg->ancestors[0]),
+			    gfp, q->node);
+	if (!iowg)
+		return NULL;
+
+	return &iowg->pd;
+}
+
+static void iow_pd_init(struct blkg_policy_data *pd)
+{
+	struct iow_gq *iowg = pd_to_iowg(pd);
+	struct blkcg_gq *blkg = pd_to_blkg(&iowg->pd);
+	struct iow *iow = q_to_iow(blkg->q);
+	struct iow_now now;
+	struct blkcg_gq *tblkg;
+	unsigned long flags;
+
+	iow_now(iow, &now);
+
+	iowg->iow = iow;
+	atomic64_set(&iowg->vtime, now.vnow);
+	atomic64_set(&iowg->done_vtime, now.vnow);
+	atomic64_set(&iowg->active_period, atomic64_read(&iow->cur_period));
+	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&iowg->active_list);
+
+	init_waitqueue_head(&iowg->waitq);
+	hrtimer_init(&iowg->waitq_timer, CLOCK_MONOTONIC, HRTIMER_MODE_ABS);
+	iowg->waitq_timer.function = iowg_waitq_timer_fn;
+	hrtimer_init(&iowg->delay_timer, CLOCK_MONOTONIC, HRTIMER_MODE_ABS);
+	iowg->delay_timer.function = iowg_delay_timer_fn;
+
+	iowg->level = blkg->blkcg->css.cgroup->level;
+
+	for (tblkg = blkg; tblkg; tblkg = tblkg->parent) {
+		struct iow_gq *tiowg = blkg_to_iowg(tblkg);
+		iowg->ancestors[tiowg->level] = tiowg;
+	}
+
+	spin_lock_irqsave(&iow->lock, flags);
+	weight_updated(iowg);
+	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&iow->lock, flags);
+}
+
+static void iow_pd_free(struct blkg_policy_data *pd)
+{
+	struct iow_gq *iowg = pd_to_iowg(pd);
+	struct iow *iow = iowg->iow;
+
+	if (iow) {
+		hrtimer_cancel(&iowg->waitq_timer);
+		hrtimer_cancel(&iowg->delay_timer);
+
+		spin_lock(&iow->lock);
+		if (!list_empty(&iowg->active_list)) {
+			propagate_active_weight(iowg, 0, 0);
+			list_del_init(&iowg->active_list);
+		}
+		spin_unlock(&iow->lock);
+	}
+	kfree(iowg);
+}
+
+static u64 iow_weight_prfill(struct seq_file *sf, struct blkg_policy_data *pd,
+			     int off)
+{
+	const char *dname = blkg_dev_name(pd->blkg);
+	struct iow_gq *iowg = pd_to_iowg(pd);
+
+	if (dname && iowg->cfg_weight)
+		seq_printf(sf, "%s %u\n", dname, iowg->cfg_weight);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+
+static int iow_weight_show(struct seq_file *sf, void *v)
+{
+	struct blkcg *blkcg = css_to_blkcg(seq_css(sf));
+	struct iow_cgrp *iowc = blkcg_to_iowc(blkcg);
+
+	seq_printf(sf, "default %u\n", iowc->dfl_weight);
+	blkcg_print_blkgs(sf, blkcg, iow_weight_prfill,
+			  &blkcg_policy_iow, seq_cft(sf)->private, false);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static ssize_t iow_weight_write(struct kernfs_open_file *of, char *buf,
+				size_t nbytes, loff_t off)
+{
+	struct blkcg *blkcg = css_to_blkcg(of_css(of));
+	struct iow_cgrp *iowc = blkcg_to_iowc(blkcg);
+	struct blkg_conf_ctx ctx;
+	struct iow_gq *iowg;
+	u32 v;
+	int ret;
+
+	if (!strchr(buf, ':')) {
+		struct blkcg_gq *blkg;
+
+		if (!sscanf(buf, "default %u", &v) && !sscanf(buf, "%u", &v))
+			return -EINVAL;
+
+		if (v < CGROUP_WEIGHT_MIN || v > CGROUP_WEIGHT_MAX)
+			return -EINVAL;
+
+		spin_lock(&blkcg->lock);
+		iowc->dfl_weight = v;
+		hlist_for_each_entry(blkg, &blkcg->blkg_list, blkcg_node) {
+			struct iow_gq *iowg = blkg_to_iowg(blkg);
+
+			if (iowg) {
+				spin_lock_irq(&iowg->iow->lock);
+				weight_updated(iowg);
+				spin_unlock_irq(&iowg->iow->lock);
+			}
+		}
+		spin_unlock(&blkcg->lock);
+
+		return nbytes;
+	}
+
+	ret = blkg_conf_prep(blkcg, &blkcg_policy_iow, buf, &ctx);
+	if (ret)
+		return ret;
+
+	iowg = blkg_to_iowg(ctx.blkg);
+
+	if (!strncmp(ctx.body, "default", 7)) {
+		v = 0;
+	} else {
+		if (!sscanf(ctx.body, "%u", &v))
+			goto einval;
+		if (v < CGROUP_WEIGHT_MIN || v > CGROUP_WEIGHT_MAX)
+			goto einval;
+	}
+
+	spin_lock_irq(&iowg->iow->lock);
+	iowg->cfg_weight = v;
+	weight_updated(iowg);
+	spin_unlock_irq(&iowg->iow->lock);
+
+	blkg_conf_finish(&ctx);
+	return nbytes;
+
+einval:
+	blkg_conf_finish(&ctx);
+	return -EINVAL;
+}
+
+static u64 iow_qos_prfill(struct seq_file *sf, struct blkg_policy_data *pd,
+			  int off)
+{
+	const char *dname = blkg_dev_name(pd->blkg);
+	struct iow *iow = pd_to_iowg(pd)->iow;
+
+	if (!dname)
+		return 0;
+
+	seq_printf(sf, "%s enable=%d ctrl=%s rpct=%u.%02u rlat=%u wpct=%u.%02u wlat=%u min=%u.%02u max=%u.%02u\n",
+		   dname, iow->enabled, iow->user_qos_params ? "user" : "auto",
+		   iow->params.qos[QOS_RPPM] / 10000,
+		   iow->params.qos[QOS_RPPM] % 10000 / 100,
+		   iow->params.qos[QOS_RLAT],
+		   iow->params.qos[QOS_WPPM] / 10000,
+		   iow->params.qos[QOS_WPPM] % 10000 / 100,
+		   iow->params.qos[QOS_WLAT],
+		   iow->params.qos[QOS_MIN] / 10000,
+		   iow->params.qos[QOS_MIN] % 10000 / 100,
+		   iow->params.qos[QOS_MAX] / 10000,
+		   iow->params.qos[QOS_MAX] % 10000 / 100);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int iow_qos_show(struct seq_file *sf, void *v)
+{
+	struct blkcg *blkcg = css_to_blkcg(seq_css(sf));
+
+	blkcg_print_blkgs(sf, blkcg, iow_qos_prfill,
+			  &blkcg_policy_iow, seq_cft(sf)->private, false);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static const match_table_t qos_ctrl_tokens = {
+	{ QOS_ENABLE,		"enable=%u"	},
+	{ QOS_CTRL,		"ctrl=%s"	},
+	{ NR_QOS_CTRL_PARAMS,	NULL		},
+};
+
+static const match_table_t qos_tokens = {
+	{ QOS_RPPM,		"rpct=%s"	},
+	{ QOS_RLAT,		"rlat=%u"	},
+	{ QOS_WPPM,		"wpct=%s"	},
+	{ QOS_WLAT,		"wlat=%u"	},
+	{ QOS_MIN,		"min=%s"	},
+	{ QOS_MAX,		"max=%s"	},
+	{ NR_QOS_PARAMS,	NULL		},
+};
+
+static ssize_t iow_qos_write(struct kernfs_open_file *of, char *input,
+			     size_t nbytes, loff_t off)
+{
+	struct gendisk *disk;
+	struct iow *iow;
+	u32 qos[NR_QOS_PARAMS];
+	bool enable, user;
+	char *p;
+	int ret;
+
+	disk = blkcg_conf_get_disk(&input);
+	if (IS_ERR(disk))
+		return PTR_ERR(disk);
+
+	iow = q_to_iow(disk->queue);
+	if (!iow) {
+		ret = blk_ioweight_init(disk->queue);
+		if (ret)
+			goto err;
+		iow = q_to_iow(disk->queue);
+	}
+
+	spin_lock_irq(&iow->lock);
+	memcpy(qos, iow->params.qos, sizeof(qos));
+	enable = iow->enabled;
+	user = iow->user_qos_params;
+	spin_unlock_irq(&iow->lock);
+
+	while ((p = strsep(&input, " \t\n"))) {
+		substring_t args[MAX_OPT_ARGS];
+		char buf[32];
+		int tok;
+		s64 v;
+
+		if (!*p)
+			continue;
+
+		switch (match_token(p, qos_ctrl_tokens, args)) {
+		case QOS_ENABLE:
+			match_u64(&args[0], &v);
+			enable = v;
+			continue;
+		case QOS_CTRL:
+			match_strlcpy(buf, &args[0], sizeof(buf));
+			if (!strcmp(buf, "auto"))
+				user = false;
+			else if (!strcmp(buf, "user"))
+				user = true;
+			else
+				goto einval;
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		tok = match_token(p, qos_tokens, args);
+		switch (tok) {
+		case QOS_RPPM:
+		case QOS_WPPM:
+			if (match_strlcpy(buf, &args[0], sizeof(buf)) >=
+			    sizeof(buf))
+				goto einval;
+			if (cgroup_parse_float(buf, 4, &v))
+				goto einval;
+			qos[tok] = clamp_t(s64, v, 0, MILLION);
+			break;
+		case QOS_RLAT:
+		case QOS_WLAT:
+			if (match_u64(&args[0], &v))
+				goto einval;
+			qos[tok] = v;
+			break;
+		case QOS_MIN:
+		case QOS_MAX:
+			if (match_strlcpy(buf, &args[0], sizeof(buf)) >=
+			    sizeof(buf))
+				goto einval;
+			if (cgroup_parse_float(buf, 4, &v))
+				goto einval;
+			qos[tok] = clamp_t(s64, v, VRATE_MIN_PPM, VRATE_MAX_PPM);
+			break;
+		default:
+			goto einval;
+		}
+		user = true;
+	}
+
+	if (qos[QOS_MIN] > qos[QOS_MAX])
+		goto einval;
+
+	spin_lock_irq(&iow->lock);
+
+	if (enable) {
+		blk_queue_flag_set(QUEUE_FLAG_REC_PRESTART, iow->rqos.q);
+		iow->enabled = true;
+	} else {
+		blk_queue_flag_clear(QUEUE_FLAG_REC_PRESTART, iow->rqos.q);
+		iow->enabled = false;
+	}
+
+	if (user) {
+		memcpy(iow->params.qos, qos, sizeof(qos));
+		iow->user_qos_params = true;
+	} else {
+		iow->user_qos_params = false;
+	}
+
+	iow_refresh_params(iow, true);
+	spin_unlock_irq(&iow->lock);
+
+	put_disk_and_module(disk);
+	return nbytes;
+einval:
+	ret = -EINVAL;
+err:
+	put_disk_and_module(disk);
+	return ret;
+}
+
+static u64 iow_cost_model_prfill(struct seq_file *sf,
+				 struct blkg_policy_data *pd, int off)
+{
+	const char *dname = blkg_dev_name(pd->blkg);
+	struct iow *iow = pd_to_iowg(pd)->iow;
+	u64 *u = iow->params.i_lcoefs;
+
+	if (!dname)
+		return 0;
+
+	seq_printf(sf, "%s ctrl=%s model=linear "
+		   "rbps=%llu rseqiops=%llu rrandiops=%llu "
+		   "wbps=%llu wseqiops=%llu wrandiops=%llu\n",
+		   dname, iow->user_cost_model ? "user" : "auto",
+		   u[I_LCOEF_RBPS],
+		   u[I_LCOEF_RSEQIOPS], u[I_LCOEF_RRANDIOPS],
+		   u[I_LCOEF_WBPS],
+		   u[I_LCOEF_WSEQIOPS], u[I_LCOEF_WRANDIOPS]);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int iow_cost_model_show(struct seq_file *sf, void *v)
+{
+	struct blkcg *blkcg = css_to_blkcg(seq_css(sf));
+
+	blkcg_print_blkgs(sf, blkcg, iow_cost_model_prfill,
+			  &blkcg_policy_iow, seq_cft(sf)->private, false);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static const match_table_t cost_ctrl_tokens = {
+	{ COST_CTRL,		"ctrl=%s"	},
+	{ COST_MODEL,		"model=%s"	},
+	{ NR_COST_CTRL_PARAMS,	NULL		},
+};
+
+static const match_table_t i_lcoef_tokens = {
+	{ I_LCOEF_RBPS,		"rbps=%u"	},
+	{ I_LCOEF_RSEQIOPS,	"rseqiops=%u"	},
+	{ I_LCOEF_RRANDIOPS,	"rrandiops=%u"	},
+	{ I_LCOEF_WBPS,		"wbps=%u"	},
+	{ I_LCOEF_WSEQIOPS,	"wseqiops=%u"	},
+	{ I_LCOEF_WRANDIOPS,	"wrandiops=%u"	},
+	{ NR_I_LCOEFS,		NULL		},
+};
+
+ssize_t iow_cost_model_write(struct kernfs_open_file *of, char *input,
+			     size_t nbytes, loff_t off)
+{
+	struct gendisk *disk;
+	struct iow *iow;
+	u64 u[NR_I_LCOEFS];
+	bool user;
+	char *p;
+	int ret;
+
+	disk = blkcg_conf_get_disk(&input);
+	if (IS_ERR(disk))
+		return PTR_ERR(disk);
+
+	iow = q_to_iow(disk->queue);
+	if (!iow) {
+		ret = blk_ioweight_init(disk->queue);
+		if (ret)
+			goto err;
+		iow = q_to_iow(disk->queue);
+	}
+
+	spin_lock_irq(&iow->lock);
+	memcpy(u, iow->params.i_lcoefs, sizeof(u));
+	user = iow->user_cost_model;
+	spin_unlock_irq(&iow->lock);
+
+	while ((p = strsep(&input, " \t\n"))) {
+		substring_t args[MAX_OPT_ARGS];
+		char buf[32];
+		int tok;
+		u64 v;
+
+		if (!*p)
+			continue;
+
+		switch (match_token(p, cost_ctrl_tokens, args)) {
+		case COST_CTRL:
+			match_strlcpy(buf, &args[0], sizeof(buf));
+			if (!strcmp(buf, "auto"))
+				user = false;
+			else if (!strcmp(buf, "user"))
+				user = true;
+			else
+				goto einval;
+			continue;
+		case COST_MODEL:
+			match_strlcpy(buf, &args[0], sizeof(buf));
+			if (strcmp(buf, "linear"))
+				goto einval;
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		tok = match_token(p, i_lcoef_tokens, args);
+		if (tok == NR_I_LCOEFS)
+			goto einval;
+		if (match_u64(&args[0], &v))
+			goto einval;
+		u[tok] = v;
+		user = true;
+	}
+
+	spin_lock_irq(&iow->lock);
+	if (user) {
+		memcpy(iow->params.i_lcoefs, u, sizeof(u));
+		iow->user_cost_model = true;
+	} else {
+		iow->user_cost_model = false;
+	}
+	iow_refresh_params(iow, true);
+	spin_unlock_irq(&iow->lock);
+
+	put_disk_and_module(disk);
+	return nbytes;
+
+einval:
+	ret = -EINVAL;
+err:
+	put_disk_and_module(disk);
+	return ret;
+}
+
+static struct cftype iow_files[] = {
+	{
+		.name = "weight",
+		.flags = CFTYPE_NOT_ON_ROOT,
+		.seq_show = iow_weight_show,
+		.write = iow_weight_write,
+	},
+	{
+		.name = "weight.qos",
+		.flags = CFTYPE_ONLY_ON_ROOT,
+		.seq_show = iow_qos_show,
+		.write = iow_qos_write,
+	},
+	{
+		.name = "weight.cost_model",
+		.flags = CFTYPE_ONLY_ON_ROOT,
+		.seq_show = iow_cost_model_show,
+		.write = iow_cost_model_write,
+	},
+	{}
+};
+
+static struct blkcg_policy blkcg_policy_iow = {
+	.dfl_cftypes	= iow_files,
+	.cpd_alloc_fn	= iow_cpd_alloc,
+	.cpd_free_fn	= iow_cpd_free,
+	.pd_alloc_fn	= iow_pd_alloc,
+	.pd_init_fn	= iow_pd_init,
+	.pd_free_fn	= iow_pd_free,
+};
+
+static int __init iow_init(void)
+{
+	return blkcg_policy_register(&blkcg_policy_iow);
+}
+
+static void __exit iow_exit(void)
+{
+	return blkcg_policy_unregister(&blkcg_policy_iow);
+}
+
+module_init(iow_init);
+module_exit(iow_exit);
diff --git a/block/blk-rq-qos.h b/block/blk-rq-qos.h
index 5f8b75826a98..1db79a2b48ff 100644
--- a/block/blk-rq-qos.h
+++ b/block/blk-rq-qos.h
@@ -15,6 +15,7 @@ struct blk_mq_debugfs_attr;
 enum rq_qos_id {
 	RQ_QOS_WBT,
 	RQ_QOS_LATENCY,
+	RQ_QOS_WEIGHT,
 };
 
 struct rq_wait {
@@ -84,6 +85,8 @@ static inline const char *rq_qos_id_to_name(enum rq_qos_id id)
 		return "wbt";
 	case RQ_QOS_LATENCY:
 		return "latency";
+	case RQ_QOS_WEIGHT:
+		return "weight";
 	}
 	return "unknown";
 }
diff --git a/include/linux/blk_types.h b/include/linux/blk_types.h
index 678932cc42c5..17db42b104bb 100644
--- a/include/linux/blk_types.h
+++ b/include/linux/blk_types.h
@@ -174,6 +174,9 @@ struct bio {
 	 */
 	struct blkcg_gq		*bi_blkg;
 	struct bio_issue	bi_issue;
+#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_CGROUP_IOWEIGHT
+	u64			bi_ioweight_cost;
+#endif
 #endif
 	union {
 #if defined(CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INTEGRITY)
diff --git a/include/trace/events/ioweight.h b/include/trace/events/ioweight.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..8e5104f46408
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/trace/events/ioweight.h
@@ -0,0 +1,174 @@
+/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 */
+#undef TRACE_SYSTEM
+#define TRACE_SYSTEM ioweight
+
+#if !defined(_TRACE_BLK_IOWEIGHT_H) || defined(TRACE_HEADER_MULTI_READ)
+#define _TRACE_BLK_IOWEIGHT_H
+
+#include <linux/tracepoint.h>
+
+TRACE_EVENT(ioweight_iowg_activate,
+
+	TP_PROTO(struct iow_gq *iowg, const char *path, struct iow_now *now,
+		u64 last_period, u64 cur_period, u64 vtime),
+
+	TP_ARGS(iowg, path, now, last_period, cur_period, vtime),
+
+	TP_STRUCT__entry (
+		__string(devname, iow_name(iowg->iow))
+		__string(cgroup, path)
+		__field(u64, now)
+		__field(u64, vnow)
+		__field(u64, vrate)
+		__field(u64, last_period)
+		__field(u64, cur_period)
+		__field(u64, last_vtime)
+		__field(u64, vtime)
+		__field(u32, weight)
+		__field(u32, inuse)
+		__field(u64, hweight_active)
+		__field(u64, hweight_inuse)
+	),
+
+	TP_fast_assign(
+		__assign_str(devname, iow_name(iowg->iow));
+		__assign_str(cgroup, path);
+		__entry->now = now->now;
+		__entry->vnow = now->vnow;
+		__entry->vrate = now->vrate;
+		__entry->last_period = last_period;
+		__entry->cur_period = cur_period;
+		__entry->last_vtime = iowg->last_vtime;
+		__entry->vtime = vtime;
+		__entry->weight = iowg->weight;
+		__entry->inuse = iowg->inuse;
+		__entry->hweight_active = iowg->hweight_active;
+		__entry->hweight_inuse = iowg->hweight_inuse;
+	),
+
+	TP_printk("[%s:%s] now=%llu:%llu vrate=%llu "
+		  "period=%llu->%llu vtime=%llu->%llu "
+		  "weight=%u/%u hweight=%llu/%llu",
+		__get_str(devname), __get_str(cgroup),
+		__entry->now, __entry->vnow, __entry->vrate,
+		__entry->last_period, __entry->cur_period,
+		__entry->last_vtime, __entry->vtime,
+		__entry->inuse, __entry->weight,
+		__entry->hweight_inuse, __entry->hweight_active
+	)
+);
+
+DECLARE_EVENT_CLASS(iowg_inuse_update,
+
+	TP_PROTO(struct iow_gq *iowg, const char *path, struct iow_now *now,
+		u32 old_inuse, u32 new_inuse,
+		u64 old_hw_inuse, u64 new_hw_inuse),
+
+	TP_ARGS(iowg, path, now, old_inuse, new_inuse,
+		old_hw_inuse, new_hw_inuse),
+
+	TP_STRUCT__entry (
+		__string(devname, iow_name(iowg->iow))
+		__string(cgroup, path)
+		__field(u64, now)
+		__field(u32, old_inuse)
+		__field(u32, new_inuse)
+		__field(u64, old_hweight_inuse)
+		__field(u64, new_hweight_inuse)
+	),
+
+	TP_fast_assign(
+		__assign_str(devname, iow_name(iowg->iow));
+		__assign_str(cgroup, path);
+		__entry->now = now->now;
+		__entry->old_inuse = old_inuse;
+		__entry->new_inuse = new_inuse;
+		__entry->old_hweight_inuse = old_hw_inuse;
+		__entry->new_hweight_inuse = new_hw_inuse;
+	),
+
+	TP_printk("[%s:%s] now=%llu inuse=%u->%u hw_inuse=%llu->%llu",
+		__get_str(devname), __get_str(cgroup), __entry->now,
+		__entry->old_inuse, __entry->new_inuse,
+		__entry->old_hweight_inuse, __entry->new_hweight_inuse
+	)
+);
+
+DEFINE_EVENT(iowg_inuse_update, ioweight_inuse_takeback,
+
+	TP_PROTO(struct iow_gq *iowg, const char *path, struct iow_now *now,
+		u32 old_inuse, u32 new_inuse,
+		u64 old_hw_inuse, u64 new_hw_inuse),
+
+	TP_ARGS(iowg, path, now, old_inuse, new_inuse,
+		old_hw_inuse, new_hw_inuse)
+);
+
+DEFINE_EVENT(iowg_inuse_update, ioweight_inuse_giveaway,
+
+	TP_PROTO(struct iow_gq *iowg, const char *path, struct iow_now *now,
+		u32 old_inuse, u32 new_inuse,
+		u64 old_hw_inuse, u64 new_hw_inuse),
+
+	TP_ARGS(iowg, path, now, old_inuse, new_inuse,
+		old_hw_inuse, new_hw_inuse)
+);
+
+DEFINE_EVENT(iowg_inuse_update, ioweight_inuse_reset,
+
+	TP_PROTO(struct iow_gq *iowg, const char *path, struct iow_now *now,
+		u32 old_inuse, u32 new_inuse,
+		u64 old_hw_inuse, u64 new_hw_inuse),
+
+	TP_ARGS(iowg, path, now, old_inuse, new_inuse,
+		old_hw_inuse, new_hw_inuse)
+);
+
+TRACE_EVENT(ioweight_iow_vrate_adj,
+
+	TP_PROTO(struct iow *iow, u64 new_vrate, u32 (*missed_ppm)[2],
+		u32 rq_wait_pct, int nr_lagging, int nr_shortages,
+		int nr_surpluses),
+
+	TP_ARGS(iow, new_vrate, missed_ppm, rq_wait_pct, nr_lagging, nr_shortages,
+		nr_surpluses),
+
+	TP_STRUCT__entry (
+		__string(devname, iow_name(iow))
+		__field(u64, old_vrate)
+		__field(u64, new_vrate)
+		__field(int, busy_level)
+		__field(u32, read_missed_ppm)
+		__field(u32, write_missed_ppm)
+		__field(u32, rq_wait_pct)
+		__field(int, nr_lagging)
+		__field(int, nr_shortages)
+		__field(int, nr_surpluses)
+	),
+
+	TP_fast_assign(
+		__assign_str(devname, iow_name(iow));
+		__entry->old_vrate = atomic64_read(&iow->vtime_rate);;
+		__entry->new_vrate = new_vrate;
+		__entry->busy_level = iow->busy_level;
+		__entry->read_missed_ppm = (*missed_ppm)[READ];
+		__entry->write_missed_ppm = (*missed_ppm)[WRITE];
+		__entry->rq_wait_pct = rq_wait_pct;
+		__entry->nr_lagging = nr_lagging;
+		__entry->nr_shortages = nr_shortages;
+		__entry->nr_surpluses = nr_surpluses;
+	),
+
+	TP_printk("[%s] vrate=%llu->%llu busy=%d missed_ppm=%u:%u rq_wait_pct=%u lagging=%d shortages=%d surpluses=%d",
+		__get_str(devname), __entry->old_vrate, __entry->new_vrate,
+		__entry->busy_level,
+		__entry->read_missed_ppm, __entry->write_missed_ppm,
+		__entry->rq_wait_pct, __entry->nr_lagging, __entry->nr_shortages,
+		__entry->nr_surpluses
+	)
+);
+
+#endif /* _TRACE_BLK_IOWEIGHT_H */
+
+/* This part must be outside protection */
+#include <trace/define_trace.h>
-- 
2.17.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 09/10] blkcg: add tools/cgroup/monitor_ioweight.py
  2019-06-14  1:56 [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller Tejun Heo
                   ` (7 preceding siblings ...)
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 08/10] blkcg: implement blk-ioweight Tejun Heo
@ 2019-06-14  1:56 ` Tejun Heo
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 10/10] blkcg: implement BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST Tejun Heo
  2019-06-14 17:56 ` [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller Tejun Heo
  10 siblings, 0 replies; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-06-14  1:56 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: axboe, newella, clm, josef, dennisz, lizefan, hannes
  Cc: linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups, ast, daniel,
	kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf, Tejun Heo, Omar Sandoval

Instead of mucking with debugfs and ->pd_stat(), add drgn based
monitoring script.

Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Cc: Omar Sandoval <osandov@fb.com>
---
 block/blk-ioweight.c             |  21 +++
 tools/cgroup/monitor_ioweight.py | 264 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 2 files changed, 285 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 tools/cgroup/monitor_ioweight.py

diff --git a/block/blk-ioweight.c b/block/blk-ioweight.c
index d10249f5774e..3d9fc1a631be 100644
--- a/block/blk-ioweight.c
+++ b/block/blk-ioweight.c
@@ -146,6 +146,27 @@
  * donate and should take back how much requires hweight propagations
  * anyway making it easier to implement and understand as a separate
  * mechanism.
+ *
+ * 3. Monitoring
+ *
+ * Instead of debugfs or other clumsy monitoring mechanisms, this
+ * controller uses a drgn based monitoring script -
+ * tools/cgroup/monitor_ioweight.py.  For details on drgn, please see
+ * https://github.com/osandov/drgn.  The ouput looks like the following.
+ *
+ *  sdb RUN   per=300ms cur_per=234.218:v203.695 busy= +1 vrate= 62.12%
+ *                 active      weight      hweight% inflt% del_ms usages%
+ *  test/a              *    50/   50  33.33/ 33.33  27.65  0*041 033:033:033
+ *  test/b              *   100/  100  66.67/ 66.67  17.56  0*000 066:079:077
+ *
+ * - per	: Timer period
+ * - cur_per	: Internal wall and device vtime clock
+ * - vrate	: Device virtual time rate against wall clock
+ * - weight	: Surplus-adjusted and configured weights
+ * - hweight	: Surplus-adjusted and configured hierarchical weights
+ * - inflt	: The percentage of in-flight IO cost at the end of last period
+ * - del_ms	: Deferred issuer delay induction level and duration
+ * - usages	: Usage history
  */
 
 #include <linux/kernel.h>
diff --git a/tools/cgroup/monitor_ioweight.py b/tools/cgroup/monitor_ioweight.py
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..3cd432772e52
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tools/cgroup/monitor_ioweight.py
@@ -0,0 +1,264 @@
+#!/usr/bin/env -S drgn -k
+#
+# This is a drgn script to monitor the blk-ioweight cgroup controller.
+# See the comment at the top of block/blk-ioweight.c for more details.
+# For drgn, visit https://github.com/osandov/drgn.
+#
+
+import sys
+import re
+import time
+import json
+
+import drgn
+from drgn import container_of
+from drgn.helpers.linux.list import list_for_each_entry,list_empty
+from drgn.helpers.linux.radixtree import radix_tree_for_each,radix_tree_lookup
+
+import argparse
+parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
+parser.add_argument('devname', metavar='DEV',
+                    help='Target block device name (e.g. sda)')
+parser.add_argument('--cgroup', action='append', metavar='REGEX',
+                    help='Regex for target cgroups, ')
+parser.add_argument('--interval', '-i', metavar='SECONDS', type=float, default=1,
+                    help='Monitoring interval in seconds')
+parser.add_argument('--json', action='store_true',
+                    help='Output in json')
+args = parser.parse_args()
+
+def err(s):
+    print(s, file=sys.stderr, flush=True)
+    sys.exit(1)
+
+try:
+    blkcg_root = prog['blkcg_root']
+    plid = prog['blkcg_policy_iow'].plid.value_()
+except:
+    err('The kernel does not have ioweight enabled')
+
+IOW_RUNNING     = prog['IOW_RUNNING'].value_()
+NR_USAGE_SLOTS  = prog['NR_USAGE_SLOTS'].value_()
+HWEIGHT_WHOLE   = prog['HWEIGHT_WHOLE'].value_()
+VTIME_PER_SEC   = prog['VTIME_PER_SEC'].value_()
+VTIME_PER_USEC  = prog['VTIME_PER_USEC'].value_()
+AUTOP_SSD_FAST  = prog['AUTOP_SSD_FAST'].value_()
+AUTOP_SSD_DFL   = prog['AUTOP_SSD_DFL'].value_()
+AUTOP_SSD_QD1   = prog['AUTOP_SSD_QD1'].value_()
+AUTOP_HDD       = prog['AUTOP_HDD'].value_()
+
+autop_names = {
+    AUTOP_SSD_FAST:        'ssd_fast',
+    AUTOP_SSD_DFL:         'ssd_dfl',
+    AUTOP_SSD_QD1:         'ssd_qd1',
+    AUTOP_HDD:             'hdd',
+}
+
+class BlkgIterator:
+    def blkcg_name(blkcg):
+        return blkcg.css.cgroup.kn.name.string_().decode('utf-8')
+
+    def walk(self, blkcg, q_id, parent_path):
+        if not self.include_dying and \
+           not (blkcg.css.flags.value_() & prog['CSS_ONLINE'].value_()):
+            return
+
+        name = BlkgIterator.blkcg_name(blkcg)
+        path = parent_path + '/' + name if parent_path else name
+        blkg = drgn.Object(prog, 'struct blkcg_gq',
+                           address=radix_tree_lookup(blkcg.blkg_tree, q_id))
+        if not blkg.address_:
+            return
+
+        self.blkgs.append((path if path else '/', blkg))
+
+        for c in list_for_each_entry('struct blkcg',
+                                     blkcg.css.children.address_of_(), 'css.sibling'):
+            self.walk(c, q_id, path)
+
+    def __init__(self, root_blkcg, q_id, include_dying=False):
+        self.include_dying = include_dying
+        self.blkgs = []
+        self.walk(root_blkcg, q_id, '')
+
+    def __iter__(self):
+        return iter(self.blkgs)
+
+class IowStat:
+    def __init__(self, iow):
+        global autop_names
+
+        self.enabled = iow.enabled.value_()
+        self.running = iow.running.value_() == IOW_RUNNING
+        self.period_ms = round(iow.period_us.value_() / 1_000)
+        self.period_at = iow.period_at.value_() / 1_000_000
+        self.vperiod_at = iow.period_at_vtime.value_() / VTIME_PER_SEC
+        self.vrate_pct = iow.vtime_rate.counter.value_() * 100 / VTIME_PER_USEC
+        self.busy_level = iow.busy_level.value_()
+        self.autop_idx = iow.autop_idx.value_()
+        self.user_cost_model = iow.user_cost_model.value_()
+        self.user_qos_params = iow.user_qos_params.value_()
+
+        if self.autop_idx in autop_names:
+            self.autop_name = autop_names[self.autop_idx]
+        else:
+            self.autop_name = '?'
+
+    def dict(self, now):
+        return { 'device'               : devname,
+                 'timestamp'            : now,
+                 'enabled'              : self.enabled,
+                 'running'              : self.running,
+                 'period_ms'            : self.period_ms,
+                 'period_at'            : self.period_at,
+                 'period_vtime_at'      : self.vperiod_at,
+                 'busy_level'           : self.busy_level,
+                 'vrate_pct'            : self.vrate_pct, }
+
+    def table_preamble_str(self):
+        state = ('RUN' if self.running else 'IDLE') if self.enabled else 'OFF'
+        output = f'{devname} {state:4} ' \
+                 f'per={self.period_ms}ms ' \
+                 f'cur_per={self.period_at:.3f}:v{self.vperiod_at:.3f} ' \
+                 f'busy={self.busy_level:+3} ' \
+                 f'vrate={self.vrate_pct:6.2f}% ' \
+                 f'params={self.autop_name}'
+        if self.user_cost_model or self.user_qos_params:
+            output += f'({"C" if self.user_cost_model else ""}{"Q" if self.user_qos_params else ""})'
+        return output
+
+    def table_header_str(self):
+        return f'{"":25} active {"weight":>9} {"hweight%":>13} {"inflt%":>6} ' \
+               f'{"del_ms":>6} {"usages%"}'
+
+class IowgStat:
+    def __init__(self, iowg):
+        iow = iowg.iow
+        blkg = iowg.pd.blkg
+
+        self.is_active = not list_empty(iowg.active_list.address_of_())
+        self.weight = iowg.weight.value_()
+        self.active = iowg.active.value_()
+        self.inuse = iowg.inuse.value_()
+        self.hwa_pct = iowg.hweight_active.value_() * 100 / HWEIGHT_WHOLE
+        self.hwi_pct = iowg.hweight_inuse.value_() * 100 / HWEIGHT_WHOLE
+
+        vdone = iowg.done_vtime.counter.value_()
+        vtime = iowg.vtime.counter.value_()
+        vrate = iow.vtime_rate.counter.value_()
+        period_vtime = iow.period_us.value_() * vrate
+        if period_vtime:
+            self.inflight_pct = (vtime - vdone) * 100 / period_vtime
+        else:
+            self.inflight_pct = 0
+
+        self.use_delay = min(blkg.use_delay.counter.value_(), 99)
+        self.delay_ms = min(round(blkg.delay_nsec.counter.value_() / 1_000_000), 999)
+
+        usage_idx = iowg.usage_idx.value_()
+        self.usages = []
+        self.usage = 0
+        for i in range(NR_USAGE_SLOTS):
+            usage = iowg.usages[(usage_idx + i) % NR_USAGE_SLOTS].value_()
+            upct = min(usage * 100 / HWEIGHT_WHOLE, 999)
+            self.usages.append(upct)
+            self.usage = max(self.usage, upct)
+
+    def dict(self, now, path):
+        out = { 'cgroup'                : path,
+                'timestamp'             : now,
+                'is_active'             : self.is_active,
+                'weight'                : self.weight,
+                'weight_active'         : self.active,
+                'weight_inuse'          : self.inuse,
+                'hweight_active_pct'    : self.hwa_pct,
+                'hweight_inuse_pct'     : self.hwi_pct,
+                'inflight_pct'          : self.inflight_pct,
+                'use_delay'             : self.use_delay,
+                'delay_ms'              : self.delay_ms,
+                'usage_pct'             : self.usage }
+        for i in range(len(self.usages)):
+            out[f'usage_pct_{i}'] = f'{self.usages[i]}'
+        return out
+
+    def table_row_str(self, path):
+        out = f'{path[-28:]:28} ' \
+              f'{"*" if self.is_active else " "} ' \
+              f'{self.inuse:5}/{self.active:5} ' \
+              f'{self.hwi_pct:6.2f}/{self.hwa_pct:6.2f} ' \
+              f'{self.inflight_pct:6.2f} ' \
+              f'{self.use_delay:2}*{self.delay_ms:03} '
+        for u in self.usages:
+            out += f'{round(u):03d}:'
+        out = out.rstrip(':')
+        return out
+
+# handle args
+table_fmt = not args.json
+interval = args.interval
+devname = args.devname
+
+if args.json:
+    table_fmt = False
+
+re_str = None
+for r in args.cgroup:
+    if re_str is None:
+        re_str = r
+    else:
+        re_str += '|' + r
+
+filter_re = re.compile(re_str) if re_str else None
+
+# Locate the roots
+q_id = None
+root_iowg = None
+iow = None
+
+for i, ptr in radix_tree_for_each(blkcg_root.blkg_tree):
+    blkg = drgn.Object(prog, 'struct blkcg_gq', address=ptr)
+    try:
+        if devname == blkg.q.kobj.parent.name.string_().decode('utf-8'):
+            q_id = blkg.q.id.value_()
+            if blkg.pd[plid]:
+                root_iowg = container_of(blkg.pd[plid], 'struct iow_gq', 'pd')
+                iow = root_iowg.iow
+            break
+    except:
+        pass
+
+if iow is None:
+    err(f'Could not find iow for {devname}');
+
+# Keep printing
+while True:
+    now = time.time()
+    iowstat = IowStat(iow)
+    output = ''
+
+    if table_fmt:
+        output += '\n' + iowstat.table_preamble_str()
+        output += '\n' + iowstat.table_header_str()
+    else:
+        output += json.dumps(iowstat.dict(now))
+
+    for path, blkg in BlkgIterator(blkcg_root, q_id):
+        if filter_re and not filter_re.match(path):
+            continue
+        if not blkg.pd[plid]:
+            continue
+
+        iowg = container_of(blkg.pd[plid], 'struct iow_gq', 'pd')
+        iowg_stat = IowgStat(iowg)
+
+        if not filter_re and not iowg_stat.is_active:
+            continue
+
+        if table_fmt:
+            output += '\n' + iowg_stat.table_row_str(path)
+        else:
+            output += '\n' + json.dumps(iowg_stat.dict(now, path))
+
+    print(output)
+    sys.stdout.flush()
+    time.sleep(interval)
-- 
2.17.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 10/10] blkcg: implement BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST
  2019-06-14  1:56 [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller Tejun Heo
                   ` (8 preceding siblings ...)
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 09/10] blkcg: add tools/cgroup/monitor_ioweight.py Tejun Heo
@ 2019-06-14  1:56 ` Tejun Heo
  2019-06-14 11:32   ` Quentin Monnet
  2019-06-14 17:56 ` [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller Tejun Heo
  10 siblings, 1 reply; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-06-14  1:56 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: axboe, newella, clm, josef, dennisz, lizefan, hannes
  Cc: linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups, ast, daniel,
	kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf, Tejun Heo

Currently, blkcg implements one builtin IO cost model - lienar.  To
allow customization and experimentation, allow a bpf program to
override IO cost model.

Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
---
 block/Kconfig                                 |   3 +
 block/blk-ioweight.c                          | 148 +++++++++++++++++-
 block/blk.h                                   |   8 +
 block/ioctl.c                                 |   4 +
 include/linux/bpf_types.h                     |   3 +
 include/uapi/linux/bpf.h                      |  11 ++
 include/uapi/linux/fs.h                       |   2 +
 tools/bpf/bpftool/feature.c                   |   3 +
 tools/bpf/bpftool/main.h                      |   1 +
 tools/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h                |  11 ++
 tools/include/uapi/linux/fs.h                 |   2 +
 tools/lib/bpf/libbpf.c                        |   2 +
 tools/lib/bpf/libbpf_probes.c                 |   1 +
 tools/testing/selftests/bpf/Makefile          |   2 +-
 tools/testing/selftests/bpf/iocost_ctrl.c     |  43 +++++
 .../selftests/bpf/progs/iocost_linear_prog.c  |  52 ++++++
 16 files changed, 287 insertions(+), 9 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/bpf/iocost_ctrl.c
 create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/bpf/progs/iocost_linear_prog.c

diff --git a/block/Kconfig b/block/Kconfig
index 15b3de28a264..2882fdd573ca 100644
--- a/block/Kconfig
+++ b/block/Kconfig
@@ -204,4 +204,7 @@ config BLK_MQ_RDMA
 config BLK_PM
 	def_bool BLOCK && PM
 
+config BLK_BPF_IO_COST
+	def_bool BLK_CGROUP_IOWEIGHT && BPF_SYSCALL
+
 source "block/Kconfig.iosched"
diff --git a/block/blk-ioweight.c b/block/blk-ioweight.c
index 3d9fc1a631be..de4fc57bb77c 100644
--- a/block/blk-ioweight.c
+++ b/block/blk-ioweight.c
@@ -43,6 +43,10 @@
  * parameters can be configured from userspace via
  * /sys/block/DEV/queue/io_cost_model.
  *
+ * For experimentations and refinements, the IO model can also be replaced
+ * by a IO_COST bpf program.  Take a look at progs/iocost_linear_prog.c and
+ * iocost_ctrl.c under tools/testing/selftests/bpf for details on how-to.
+ *
  * 2. Control Strategy
  *
  * The device virtual time (vtime) is used as the primary control metric.
@@ -176,6 +180,7 @@
 #include <linux/parser.h>
 #include <linux/sched/signal.h>
 #include <linux/blk-cgroup.h>
+#include <linux/filter.h>
 #include "blk-rq-qos.h"
 #include "blk-stat.h"
 #include "blk-wbt.h"
@@ -387,6 +392,10 @@ struct iow {
 	bool				enabled;
 
 	struct iow_params		params;
+#ifdef CONFIG_BPF_SYSCALL
+	/* if non-NULL, bpf cost model is being used */
+	struct bpf_prog __rcu		*cost_prog;
+#endif
 	u32				period_us;
 	u32				margin_us;
 	u64				vrate_min;
@@ -1565,6 +1574,45 @@ static void iow_timer_fn(struct timer_list *timer)
 	spin_unlock_irq(&iow->lock);
 }
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_BPF_IO_COST
+static bool calc_vtime_cost_bpf(struct bio *bio, struct iow_gq *iowg,
+				bool is_merge, u64 *costp)
+{
+	struct iow *iow = iowg->iow;
+	struct bpf_prog *prog;
+	bool ret = false;
+
+	if (!iow->cost_prog)
+		return ret;
+
+	rcu_read_lock();
+	prog = rcu_dereference(iow->cost_prog);
+	if (prog) {
+		struct bpf_io_cost ctx = {
+			.cost = 0,
+			.opf = bio->bi_opf,
+			.nr_sectors = bio_sectors(bio),
+			.sector = bio->bi_iter.bi_sector,
+			.last_sector = iowg->cursor,
+			.is_merge = is_merge,
+		};
+
+		BPF_PROG_RUN(prog, &ctx);
+		*costp = ctx.cost;
+		ret = true;
+	}
+	rcu_read_unlock();
+
+	return ret;
+}
+#else
+static bool calc_vtime_cost_bpf(struct bio *bio, struct iow_gq *iowg,
+				bool is_merge, u64 *costp)
+{
+	return false;
+}
+#endif
+
 static void calc_vtime_cost_builtin(struct bio *bio, struct iow_gq *iowg,
 				    bool is_merge, u64 *costp)
 {
@@ -1610,6 +1658,9 @@ static u64 calc_vtime_cost(struct bio *bio, struct iow_gq *iowg, bool is_merge)
 {
 	u64 cost;
 
+	if (calc_vtime_cost_bpf(bio, iowg, is_merge, &cost))
+		return cost;
+
 	calc_vtime_cost_builtin(bio, iowg, is_merge, &cost);
 	return cost;
 }
@@ -2214,14 +2265,17 @@ static u64 iow_cost_model_prfill(struct seq_file *sf,
 	if (!dname)
 		return 0;
 
-	seq_printf(sf, "%s ctrl=%s model=linear "
-		   "rbps=%llu rseqiops=%llu rrandiops=%llu "
-		   "wbps=%llu wseqiops=%llu wrandiops=%llu\n",
-		   dname, iow->user_cost_model ? "user" : "auto",
-		   u[I_LCOEF_RBPS],
-		   u[I_LCOEF_RSEQIOPS], u[I_LCOEF_RRANDIOPS],
-		   u[I_LCOEF_WBPS],
-		   u[I_LCOEF_WSEQIOPS], u[I_LCOEF_WRANDIOPS]);
+	if (iow->cost_prog)
+		seq_printf(sf, "%s ctrl=bpf\n", dname);
+	else
+		seq_printf(sf, "%s ctrl=%s model=linear "
+			   "rbps=%llu rseqiops=%llu rrandiops=%llu "
+			   "wbps=%llu wseqiops=%llu wrandiops=%llu\n",
+			   dname, iow->user_cost_model ? "user" : "auto",
+			   u[I_LCOEF_RBPS],
+			   u[I_LCOEF_RSEQIOPS], u[I_LCOEF_RRANDIOPS],
+			   u[I_LCOEF_WBPS],
+			   u[I_LCOEF_WSEQIOPS], u[I_LCOEF_WRANDIOPS]);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -2363,6 +2417,84 @@ static struct blkcg_policy blkcg_policy_iow = {
 	.pd_free_fn	= iow_pd_free,
 };
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_BPF_IO_COST
+static bool io_cost_is_valid_access(int off, int size,
+				    enum bpf_access_type type,
+				    const struct bpf_prog *prog,
+				    struct bpf_insn_access_aux *info)
+{
+	if (off < 0 || off >= sizeof(struct bpf_io_cost) || off % size)
+		return false;
+
+	if (off != offsetof(struct bpf_io_cost, cost) && type != BPF_READ)
+		return false;
+
+	switch (off) {
+	case bpf_ctx_range(struct bpf_io_cost, opf):
+		bpf_ctx_record_field_size(info, sizeof(__u32));
+		return bpf_ctx_narrow_access_ok(off, size, sizeof(__u32));
+	case offsetof(struct bpf_io_cost, nr_sectors):
+		return size == sizeof(__u32);
+	case offsetof(struct bpf_io_cost, cost):
+	case offsetof(struct bpf_io_cost, sector):
+	case offsetof(struct bpf_io_cost, last_sector):
+		return size == sizeof(__u64);
+	case offsetof(struct bpf_io_cost, is_merge):
+		return size == sizeof(__u8);
+	}
+
+	return false;
+}
+
+const struct bpf_prog_ops io_cost_prog_ops = {
+};
+
+const struct bpf_verifier_ops io_cost_verifier_ops = {
+	.is_valid_access	= io_cost_is_valid_access,
+};
+
+int blk_bpf_io_cost_ioctl(struct block_device *bdev, unsigned cmd,
+			  char __user *arg)
+{
+	int prog_fd = (int)(long)arg;
+	struct bpf_prog *prog = NULL;
+	struct request_queue *q;
+	struct iow *iow;
+	int ret = 0;
+
+	q = bdev_get_queue(bdev);
+	if (!q)
+		return -ENXIO;
+	iow = q_to_iow(q);
+
+	if (prog_fd >= 0) {
+		prog = bpf_prog_get_type(prog_fd, BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST);
+		if (IS_ERR(prog))
+			return PTR_ERR(prog);
+
+		spin_lock_irq(&iow->lock);
+		if (!iow->cost_prog) {
+			rcu_assign_pointer(iow->cost_prog, prog);
+			prog = NULL;
+		} else {
+			ret = -EEXIST;
+		}
+		spin_unlock_irq(&iow->lock);
+	} else {
+		spin_lock_irq(&iow->lock);
+		if (iow->cost_prog) {
+			prog = iow->cost_prog;
+			rcu_assign_pointer(iow->cost_prog, NULL);
+		}
+		spin_unlock_irq(&iow->lock);
+	}
+
+	if (prog)
+		bpf_prog_put(prog);
+	return ret;
+}
+#endif /* CONFIG_BLK_BPF_IO_COST */
+
 static int __init iow_init(void)
 {
 	return blkcg_policy_register(&blkcg_policy_iow);
diff --git a/block/blk.h b/block/blk.h
index 7814aa207153..98fa2283534f 100644
--- a/block/blk.h
+++ b/block/blk.h
@@ -317,6 +317,14 @@ static inline void blk_queue_bounce(struct request_queue *q, struct bio **bio)
 }
 #endif /* CONFIG_BOUNCE */
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_BPF_IO_COST
+int blk_bpf_io_cost_ioctl(struct block_device *bdev, unsigned cmd,
+			  char __user *arg);
+#else
+static inline int blk_bpf_io_cost_ioctl(struct block_device *bdev, unsigned cmd,
+					char __user *arg) { return -ENOTTY; }
+#endif
+
 #ifdef CONFIG_BLK_CGROUP_IOLATENCY
 extern int blk_iolatency_init(struct request_queue *q);
 #else
diff --git a/block/ioctl.c b/block/ioctl.c
index 15a0eb80ada9..89d48d7dea0f 100644
--- a/block/ioctl.c
+++ b/block/ioctl.c
@@ -11,6 +11,8 @@
 #include <linux/pr.h>
 #include <linux/uaccess.h>
 
+#include "blk.h"
+
 static int blkpg_ioctl(struct block_device *bdev, struct blkpg_ioctl_arg __user *arg)
 {
 	struct block_device *bdevp;
@@ -590,6 +592,8 @@ int blkdev_ioctl(struct block_device *bdev, fmode_t mode, unsigned cmd,
 	case BLKTRACESETUP:
 	case BLKTRACETEARDOWN:
 		return blk_trace_ioctl(bdev, cmd, argp);
+	case BLKBPFIOCOST:
+		return blk_bpf_io_cost_ioctl(bdev, cmd, argp);
 	case IOC_PR_REGISTER:
 		return blkdev_pr_register(bdev, argp);
 	case IOC_PR_RESERVE:
diff --git a/include/linux/bpf_types.h b/include/linux/bpf_types.h
index 5a9975678d6f..fb0a91c655c2 100644
--- a/include/linux/bpf_types.h
+++ b/include/linux/bpf_types.h
@@ -37,6 +37,9 @@ BPF_PROG_TYPE(BPF_PROG_TYPE_LIRC_MODE2, lirc_mode2)
 #ifdef CONFIG_INET
 BPF_PROG_TYPE(BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_REUSEPORT, sk_reuseport)
 #endif
+#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_BPF_IO_COST
+BPF_PROG_TYPE(BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST, io_cost)
+#endif
 
 BPF_MAP_TYPE(BPF_MAP_TYPE_ARRAY, array_map_ops)
 BPF_MAP_TYPE(BPF_MAP_TYPE_PERCPU_ARRAY, percpu_array_map_ops)
diff --git a/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h b/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h
index 63e0cf66f01a..1664ef4ccc79 100644
--- a/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h
+++ b/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h
@@ -170,6 +170,7 @@ enum bpf_prog_type {
 	BPF_PROG_TYPE_FLOW_DISSECTOR,
 	BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SYSCTL,
 	BPF_PROG_TYPE_RAW_TRACEPOINT_WRITABLE,
+	BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST,
 };
 
 enum bpf_attach_type {
@@ -3472,6 +3473,16 @@ struct bpf_flow_keys {
 	};
 };
 
+struct bpf_io_cost {
+	__u64	cost;				/* output */
+
+	__u32	opf;
+	__u32	nr_sectors;
+	__u64	sector;
+	__u64	last_sector;
+	__u8	is_merge;
+};
+
 struct bpf_func_info {
 	__u32	insn_off;
 	__u32	type_id;
diff --git a/include/uapi/linux/fs.h b/include/uapi/linux/fs.h
index 59c71fa8c553..ddf3c80c9407 100644
--- a/include/uapi/linux/fs.h
+++ b/include/uapi/linux/fs.h
@@ -181,6 +181,8 @@ struct fsxattr {
 #define BLKSECDISCARD _IO(0x12,125)
 #define BLKROTATIONAL _IO(0x12,126)
 #define BLKZEROOUT _IO(0x12,127)
+#define BLKBPFIOCOST _IO(0x12, 128)
+
 /*
  * A jump here: 130-131 are reserved for zoned block devices
  * (see uapi/linux/blkzoned.h)
diff --git a/tools/bpf/bpftool/feature.c b/tools/bpf/bpftool/feature.c
index d672d9086fff..beeac8ac48f3 100644
--- a/tools/bpf/bpftool/feature.c
+++ b/tools/bpf/bpftool/feature.c
@@ -383,6 +383,9 @@ static void probe_kernel_image_config(void)
 		/* bpftilter module with "user mode helper" */
 		"CONFIG_BPFILTER_UMH",
 
+		/* Block */
+		"CONFIG_BLK_IO_COST",
+
 		/* test_bpf module for BPF tests */
 		"CONFIG_TEST_BPF",
 	};
diff --git a/tools/bpf/bpftool/main.h b/tools/bpf/bpftool/main.h
index 3d63feb7f852..298e53f35573 100644
--- a/tools/bpf/bpftool/main.h
+++ b/tools/bpf/bpftool/main.h
@@ -74,6 +74,7 @@ static const char * const prog_type_name[] = {
 	[BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_REUSEPORT]		= "sk_reuseport",
 	[BPF_PROG_TYPE_FLOW_DISSECTOR]		= "flow_dissector",
 	[BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SYSCTL]		= "cgroup_sysctl",
+	[BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST]			= "io_cost",
 };
 
 extern const char * const map_type_name[];
diff --git a/tools/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h b/tools/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h
index 63e0cf66f01a..1664ef4ccc79 100644
--- a/tools/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h
+++ b/tools/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h
@@ -170,6 +170,7 @@ enum bpf_prog_type {
 	BPF_PROG_TYPE_FLOW_DISSECTOR,
 	BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SYSCTL,
 	BPF_PROG_TYPE_RAW_TRACEPOINT_WRITABLE,
+	BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST,
 };
 
 enum bpf_attach_type {
@@ -3472,6 +3473,16 @@ struct bpf_flow_keys {
 	};
 };
 
+struct bpf_io_cost {
+	__u64	cost;				/* output */
+
+	__u32	opf;
+	__u32	nr_sectors;
+	__u64	sector;
+	__u64	last_sector;
+	__u8	is_merge;
+};
+
 struct bpf_func_info {
 	__u32	insn_off;
 	__u32	type_id;
diff --git a/tools/include/uapi/linux/fs.h b/tools/include/uapi/linux/fs.h
index 59c71fa8c553..ddf3c80c9407 100644
--- a/tools/include/uapi/linux/fs.h
+++ b/tools/include/uapi/linux/fs.h
@@ -181,6 +181,8 @@ struct fsxattr {
 #define BLKSECDISCARD _IO(0x12,125)
 #define BLKROTATIONAL _IO(0x12,126)
 #define BLKZEROOUT _IO(0x12,127)
+#define BLKBPFIOCOST _IO(0x12, 128)
+
 /*
  * A jump here: 130-131 are reserved for zoned block devices
  * (see uapi/linux/blkzoned.h)
diff --git a/tools/lib/bpf/libbpf.c b/tools/lib/bpf/libbpf.c
index 197b574406b3..6dbee409f3b0 100644
--- a/tools/lib/bpf/libbpf.c
+++ b/tools/lib/bpf/libbpf.c
@@ -2266,6 +2266,7 @@ static bool bpf_prog_type__needs_kver(enum bpf_prog_type type)
 	case BPF_PROG_TYPE_RAW_TRACEPOINT_WRITABLE:
 	case BPF_PROG_TYPE_PERF_EVENT:
 	case BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SYSCTL:
+	case BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST:
 		return false;
 	case BPF_PROG_TYPE_KPROBE:
 	default:
@@ -3168,6 +3169,7 @@ static const struct {
 	BPF_PROG_SEC("lwt_out",			BPF_PROG_TYPE_LWT_OUT),
 	BPF_PROG_SEC("lwt_xmit",		BPF_PROG_TYPE_LWT_XMIT),
 	BPF_PROG_SEC("lwt_seg6local",		BPF_PROG_TYPE_LWT_SEG6LOCAL),
+	BPF_PROG_SEC("io_cost",			BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST),
 	BPF_APROG_SEC("cgroup_skb/ingress",	BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SKB,
 						BPF_CGROUP_INET_INGRESS),
 	BPF_APROG_SEC("cgroup_skb/egress",	BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SKB,
diff --git a/tools/lib/bpf/libbpf_probes.c b/tools/lib/bpf/libbpf_probes.c
index 5e2aa83f637a..024831756151 100644
--- a/tools/lib/bpf/libbpf_probes.c
+++ b/tools/lib/bpf/libbpf_probes.c
@@ -101,6 +101,7 @@ probe_load(enum bpf_prog_type prog_type, const struct bpf_insn *insns,
 	case BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_REUSEPORT:
 	case BPF_PROG_TYPE_FLOW_DISSECTOR:
 	case BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SYSCTL:
+	case BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST:
 	default:
 		break;
 	}
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/bpf/Makefile b/tools/testing/selftests/bpf/Makefile
index 66f2dca1dee1..c28f308c9575 100644
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/bpf/Makefile
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/bpf/Makefile
@@ -23,7 +23,7 @@ TEST_GEN_PROGS = test_verifier test_tag test_maps test_lru_map test_lpm_map test
 	test_align test_verifier_log test_dev_cgroup test_tcpbpf_user \
 	test_sock test_btf test_sockmap test_lirc_mode2_user get_cgroup_id_user \
 	test_socket_cookie test_cgroup_storage test_select_reuseport test_section_names \
-	test_netcnt test_tcpnotify_user test_sock_fields test_sysctl
+	test_netcnt test_tcpnotify_user test_sock_fields test_sysctl iocost_ctrl
 
 BPF_OBJ_FILES = $(patsubst %.c,%.o, $(notdir $(wildcard progs/*.c)))
 TEST_GEN_FILES = $(BPF_OBJ_FILES)
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/bpf/iocost_ctrl.c b/tools/testing/selftests/bpf/iocost_ctrl.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..d9d3eb70d0ac
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/bpf/iocost_ctrl.c
@@ -0,0 +1,43 @@
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <sys/ioctl.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+
+#include <linux/bpf.h>
+#include <bpf/bpf.h>
+#include <bpf/libbpf.h>
+
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+
+int main(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	struct bpf_object *obj;
+	int dev_fd, prog_fd = -1;
+
+	if (argc < 2) {
+		fprintf(stderr, "Usage: iocost-attach BLKDEV [BPF_PROG]");
+		return 1;
+	}
+
+	dev_fd = open(argv[1], O_RDONLY);
+	if (dev_fd < 0) {
+		perror("open(BLKDEV)");
+		return 1;
+	}
+
+	if (argc > 2) {
+		if (bpf_prog_load(argv[2], BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST,
+				  &obj, &prog_fd)) {
+			perror("bpf_prog_load(BPF_PROG)");
+			return 1;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (ioctl(dev_fd, BLKBPFIOCOST, (long)prog_fd)) {
+		perror("ioctl(BLKBPFIOCOST)");
+		return 1;
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/bpf/progs/iocost_linear_prog.c b/tools/testing/selftests/bpf/progs/iocost_linear_prog.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..4e202c595658
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/bpf/progs/iocost_linear_prog.c
@@ -0,0 +1,52 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+#include <linux/version.h>
+#include <linux/bpf.h>
+#include "bpf_helpers.h"
+
+#define REQ_OP_READ	0
+#define REQ_OP_WRITE	1
+#define REQ_OP_BITS	8
+#define REQ_OP_MASK	((1 << REQ_OP_BITS) - 1)
+
+#define LCOEF_RSEQIO	14663889
+#define LCOEF_RRANDIO	248752010
+#define LCOEF_RPAGE	28151808
+#define LCOEF_WSEQIO	32671670
+#define LCOEF_WRANDIO	63150006
+#define LCOEF_WPAGE	7323648
+
+#define RAND_IO_CUTOFF	10
+
+SEC("io_cost")
+int func(struct bpf_io_cost *ctx)
+{
+	int op;
+	__u64 seqio, randio, page;
+	__s64 delta;
+
+	switch (ctx->opf & REQ_OP_MASK) {
+	case REQ_OP_READ:
+		seqio = LCOEF_RSEQIO;
+		randio = LCOEF_RRANDIO;
+		page = LCOEF_RPAGE;
+		break;
+	case REQ_OP_WRITE:
+		seqio = LCOEF_WSEQIO;
+		randio = LCOEF_WRANDIO;
+		page = LCOEF_WPAGE;
+		break;
+	default:
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	delta = ctx->sector - ctx->last_sector;
+	if (delta >= -RAND_IO_CUTOFF && delta <= RAND_IO_CUTOFF)
+		ctx->cost += seqio;
+	else
+		ctx->cost += randio;
+	if (!ctx->is_merge)
+		ctx->cost += page * (ctx->nr_sectors >> 3);
+
+	return 0;
+}
-- 
2.17.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 10/10] blkcg: implement BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 10/10] blkcg: implement BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST Tejun Heo
@ 2019-06-14 11:32   ` Quentin Monnet
  2019-06-14 14:52     ` Tejun Heo
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 33+ messages in thread
From: Quentin Monnet @ 2019-06-14 11:32 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Tejun Heo, axboe, newella, clm, josef, dennisz, lizefan, hannes
  Cc: linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups, ast, daniel,
	kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf

2019-06-13 18:56 UTC-0700 ~ Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
> Currently, blkcg implements one builtin IO cost model - lienar.  To
> allow customization and experimentation, allow a bpf program to
> override IO cost model.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
> ---

[...]

> diff --git a/tools/bpf/bpftool/feature.c b/tools/bpf/bpftool/feature.c
> index d672d9086fff..beeac8ac48f3 100644
> --- a/tools/bpf/bpftool/feature.c
> +++ b/tools/bpf/bpftool/feature.c
> @@ -383,6 +383,9 @@ static void probe_kernel_image_config(void)
>  		/* bpftilter module with "user mode helper" */
>  		"CONFIG_BPFILTER_UMH",
>  
> +		/* Block */
> +		"CONFIG_BLK_IO_COST",
> +
>  		/* test_bpf module for BPF tests */
>  		"CONFIG_TEST_BPF",
>  	};
> diff --git a/tools/bpf/bpftool/main.h b/tools/bpf/bpftool/main.h
> index 3d63feb7f852..298e53f35573 100644
> --- a/tools/bpf/bpftool/main.h
> +++ b/tools/bpf/bpftool/main.h
> @@ -74,6 +74,7 @@ static const char * const prog_type_name[] = {
>  	[BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_REUSEPORT]		= "sk_reuseport",
>  	[BPF_PROG_TYPE_FLOW_DISSECTOR]		= "flow_dissector",
>  	[BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SYSCTL]		= "cgroup_sysctl",
> +	[BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST]			= "io_cost",
>  };
>  
>  extern const char * const map_type_name[];

Hi Tejun,

Please make sure to update the documentation and bash
completion when adding the new type to bpftool. You
probably want something like the diff below.

Thanks,
Quentin


diff --git a/tools/bpf/bpftool/Documentation/bpftool-prog.rst b/tools/bpf/bpftool/Documentation/bpftool-prog.rst
index 228a5c863cc7..0ceae71c07a8 100644
--- a/tools/bpf/bpftool/Documentation/bpftool-prog.rst
+++ b/tools/bpf/bpftool/Documentation/bpftool-prog.rst
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@ PROG COMMANDS
 |              **lwt_seg6local** | **sockops** | **sk_skb** | **sk_msg** | **lirc_mode2** |
 |              **cgroup/bind4** | **cgroup/bind6** | **cgroup/post_bind4** | **cgroup/post_bind6** |
 |              **cgroup/connect4** | **cgroup/connect6** | **cgroup/sendmsg4** | **cgroup/sendmsg6** |
-|              **cgroup/sysctl**
+|              **cgroup/sysctl** | **io_cost**
 |      }
 |       *ATTACH_TYPE* := {
 |              **msg_verdict** | **stream_verdict** | **stream_parser** | **flow_dissector**
diff --git a/tools/bpf/bpftool/bash-completion/bpftool b/tools/bpf/bpftool/bash-completion/bpftool
index 2725e27dfa42..057590611e63 100644
--- a/tools/bpf/bpftool/bash-completion/bpftool
+++ b/tools/bpf/bpftool/bash-completion/bpftool
@@ -378,7 +378,7 @@ _bpftool()
                                 cgroup/connect4 cgroup/connect6 \
                                 cgroup/sendmsg4 cgroup/sendmsg6 \
                                 cgroup/post_bind4 cgroup/post_bind6 \
-                                cgroup/sysctl" -- \
+                                cgroup/sysctl io_cost" -- \
                                                    "$cur" ) )
                             return 0
                             ;;
diff --git a/tools/bpf/bpftool/prog.c b/tools/bpf/bpftool/prog.c
index 1f209c80d906..6ba1d567bf17 100644
--- a/tools/bpf/bpftool/prog.c
+++ b/tools/bpf/bpftool/prog.c
@@ -1070,7 +1070,7 @@ static int do_help(int argc, char **argv)
                "                 sk_reuseport | flow_dissector | cgroup/sysctl |\n"
                "                 cgroup/bind4 | cgroup/bind6 | cgroup/post_bind4 |\n"
                "                 cgroup/post_bind6 | cgroup/connect4 | cgroup/connect6 |\n"
-               "                 cgroup/sendmsg4 | cgroup/sendmsg6 }\n"
+               "                 cgroup/sendmsg4 | cgroup/sendmsg6 | io_cost }\n"
                "       ATTACH_TYPE := { msg_verdict | stream_verdict | stream_parser |\n"
                "                        flow_dissector }\n"
                "       " HELP_SPEC_OPTIONS "\n"

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 08/10] blkcg: implement blk-ioweight
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 08/10] blkcg: implement blk-ioweight Tejun Heo
@ 2019-06-14 12:17   ` Toke Høiland-Jørgensen
  2019-06-14 15:09     ` Tejun Heo
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 33+ messages in thread
From: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen @ 2019-06-14 12:17 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Tejun Heo, axboe, newella, clm, josef, dennisz, lizefan, hannes
  Cc: linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups, ast, daniel,
	kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf, Tejun Heo, Josef Bacik

Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> writes:

> This patchset implements IO cost model based work-conserving
> proportional controller.
>
> While io.latency provides the capability to comprehensively prioritize
> and protect IOs depending on the cgroups, its protection is binary -
> the lowest latency target cgroup which is suffering is protected at
> the cost of all others.  In many use cases including stacking multiple
> workload containers in a single system, it's necessary to distribute
> IO capacity with better granularity.
>
> One challenge of controlling IO resources is the lack of trivially
> observable cost metric.  The most common metrics - bandwidth and iops
> - can be off by orders of magnitude depending on the device type and
> IO pattern.  However, the cost isn't a complete mystery.  Given
> several key attributes, we can make fairly reliable predictions on how
> expensive a given stream of IOs would be, at least compared to other
> IO patterns.
>
> The function which determines the cost of a given IO is the IO cost
> model for the device.  This controller distributes IO capacity based
> on the costs estimated by such model.  The more accurate the cost
> model the better but the controller adapts based on IO completion
> latency and as long as the relative costs across differents IO
> patterns are consistent and sensible, it'll adapt to the actual
> performance of the device.
>
> Currently, the only implemented cost model is a simple linear one with
> a few sets of default parameters for different classes of device.
> This covers most common devices reasonably well.  All the
> infrastructure to tune and add different cost models is already in
> place and a later patch will also allow using bpf progs for cost
> models.
>
> Please see the top comment in blk-ioweight.c and documentation for
> more details.

Reading through the description here and in the comment, and with the
caveat that I am familiar with network packet scheduling but not with
the IO layer, I think your approach sounds quite reasonable; and I'm
happy to see improvements in this area!

One question: How are equal-weight cgroups scheduled relative to each
other? Or requests from different processes within a single cgroup for
that matter? FIFO? Round-robin? Something else?

Thanks,

-Toke

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 10/10] blkcg: implement BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST
  2019-06-14 11:32   ` Quentin Monnet
@ 2019-06-14 14:52     ` Tejun Heo
  2019-06-14 16:35       ` Alexei Starovoitov
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-06-14 14:52 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Quentin Monnet
  Cc: axboe, newella, clm, josef, dennisz, lizefan, hannes,
	linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups, ast, daniel,
	kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf

Hello, Quentin.

On Fri, Jun 14, 2019 at 12:32:09PM +0100, Quentin Monnet wrote:
> Please make sure to update the documentation and bash
> completion when adding the new type to bpftool. You
> probably want something like the diff below.

Thank you so much.  Will incorporate them.  Just in case, while it's
noted in the head message, I lost the RFC marker while prepping this
patch.  It isn't yet clear whether we'd really need custom cost
functions and this patch is included more as a proof of concept.  If
it turns out that this is beneficial enough, the followings need to be
answered.

* Is block ioctl the right mechanism to attach these programs?

* Are there more parameters that need to be exposed to the programs?

* It'd be great to have efficient access to per-blockdev and
  per-blockdev-cgroup-pair storages available to these programs so
  that they can keep track of history.  What'd be the best of way of
  doing that considering the fact that these programs will be called
  per each IO and the overhead can add up quickly?

Thanks.

-- 
tejun

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 08/10] blkcg: implement blk-ioweight
  2019-06-14 12:17   ` Toke Høiland-Jørgensen
@ 2019-06-14 15:09     ` Tejun Heo
  2019-06-14 20:50       ` Toke Høiland-Jørgensen
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-06-14 15:09 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen
  Cc: axboe, newella, clm, josef, dennisz, lizefan, hannes,
	linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups, ast, daniel,
	kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf, Josef Bacik

Hello, Toke.

On Fri, Jun 14, 2019 at 02:17:45PM +0200, Toke Høiland-Jørgensen wrote:
> One question: How are equal-weight cgroups scheduled relative to each
> other? Or requests from different processes within a single cgroup for
> that matter? FIFO? Round-robin? Something else?

Once each cgroup got their hierarchical weight and current vtime for
the period, they don't talk to each other.  Each is expected to do the
right thing on their own.  When the period ends, the timer looks at
how the device is performing, how much each used and so on and then
make necessary adjustments.  So, there's no direct cross-cgroup
synchronization.  Each is throttled to their target level
independently.

Within a single cgroup, the IOs are FIFO.  When an IO has enough vtime
credit, it just passes through.  When it doesn't, it always waits
behind any other IOs which are already waiting.

Thanks.

-- 
tejun

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 10/10] blkcg: implement BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST
  2019-06-14 14:52     ` Tejun Heo
@ 2019-06-14 16:35       ` Alexei Starovoitov
  2019-06-14 17:09         ` Tejun Heo
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 33+ messages in thread
From: Alexei Starovoitov @ 2019-06-14 16:35 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Tejun Heo, Quentin Monnet
  Cc: axboe, Andy Newell, Chris Mason, josef, Dennis Zhou, lizefan,
	hannes, linux-kernel, linux-block, Kernel Team, cgroups, ast,
	daniel, Martin Lau, Song Liu, Yonghong Song, bpf

On 6/14/19 7:52 AM, Tejun Heo wrote:
> Hello, Quentin.
> 
> On Fri, Jun 14, 2019 at 12:32:09PM +0100, Quentin Monnet wrote:
>> Please make sure to update the documentation and bash
>> completion when adding the new type to bpftool. You
>> probably want something like the diff below.
> 
> Thank you so much.  Will incorporate them.  Just in case, while it's
> noted in the head message, I lost the RFC marker while prepping this
> patch.  It isn't yet clear whether we'd really need custom cost
> functions and this patch is included more as a proof of concept.  

the example bpf prog looks flexible enough to allow some degree
of experiments. The question is what kind of new algorithms you envision
it will do? what other inputs it would need to make a decision?
I think it's ok to start with what it does now and extend further
when need arises.

> If
> it turns out that this is beneficial enough, the followings need to be
> answered.
> 
> * Is block ioctl the right mechanism to attach these programs?

imo ioctl is a bit weird, but since its only one program per block
device it's probably ok? Unless you see it being cgroup scoped in
the future? Then cgroup-bpf style hooks will be more suitable
and allow a chain of programs.

> * Are there more parameters that need to be exposed to the programs?
> 
> * It'd be great to have efficient access to per-blockdev and
>    per-blockdev-cgroup-pair storages available to these programs so
>    that they can keep track of history.  What'd be the best of way of
>    doing that considering the fact that these programs will be called
>    per each IO and the overhead can add up quickly?

Martin's socket local storage solved that issue for sockets.
Something very similar can work for per-blockdev-per-cgroup.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 10/10] blkcg: implement BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST
  2019-06-14 16:35       ` Alexei Starovoitov
@ 2019-06-14 17:09         ` Tejun Heo
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-06-14 17:09 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Alexei Starovoitov
  Cc: Quentin Monnet, axboe, Andy Newell, Chris Mason, josef,
	Dennis Zhou, lizefan, hannes, linux-kernel, linux-block,
	Kernel Team, cgroups, ast, daniel, Martin Lau, Song Liu,
	Yonghong Song, bpf

Hello, Alexei.

On Fri, Jun 14, 2019 at 04:35:35PM +0000, Alexei Starovoitov wrote:
> the example bpf prog looks flexible enough to allow some degree
> of experiments. The question is what kind of new algorithms you envision
> it will do? what other inputs it would need to make a decision?
> I think it's ok to start with what it does now and extend further
> when need arises.

I'm not sure right now.  The linear model worked a lot better than I
originally expected and looks like it can cover most of the current
use cases.  It could easily be that we just haven't seen enough
different cases yet.

At one point, quadratic model was on the table in case the linear
model wasn't good enough.  Also, one area which may need improvements
could be factoring in r/w mixture into consideration.  Some SSDs'
performance nose-dive when r/w commands are mixed in certain
proportions.  Right now, we just deal with that by adjusting global
performance ratio (vrate) but I can imagine a model which considers
the issue history in the past X seconds of the cgroup and bumps the
overall cost according to r/w mixture.

> > * Is block ioctl the right mechanism to attach these programs?
> 
> imo ioctl is a bit weird, but since its only one program per block
> device it's probably ok? Unless you see it being cgroup scoped in
> the future? Then cgroup-bpf style hooks will be more suitable
> and allow a chain of programs.

As this is a device property, I think there should only be one program
per block device.

> > * Are there more parameters that need to be exposed to the programs?
> > 
> > * It'd be great to have efficient access to per-blockdev and
> >    per-blockdev-cgroup-pair storages available to these programs so
> >    that they can keep track of history.  What'd be the best of way of
> >    doing that considering the fact that these programs will be called
> >    per each IO and the overhead can add up quickly?
> 
> Martin's socket local storage solved that issue for sockets.
> Something very similar can work for per-blockdev-per-cgroup.

Cool, that sounds great in case we need to develop this further.  Andy
had this self-learning model which didn't need any external input and
could tune itself solely based on device saturation state.  If the
prog can remember states cheaply, it'd be pretty cool to experiment
with things like that in bpf.

Thanks.

-- 
tejun

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller
  2019-06-14  1:56 [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller Tejun Heo
                   ` (9 preceding siblings ...)
  2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 10/10] blkcg: implement BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST Tejun Heo
@ 2019-06-14 17:56 ` Tejun Heo
  2019-08-20 10:48   ` Paolo Valente
  10 siblings, 1 reply; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-06-14 17:56 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: axboe, newella, clm, josef, dennisz, lizefan, hannes
  Cc: linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups, ast, daniel,
	kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf

On Thu, Jun 13, 2019 at 06:56:10PM -0700, Tejun Heo wrote:
...
> The patchset is also available in the following git branch.
> 
>  git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/cgroup.git review-iow

Updated patchset available in the following branch.  Just build fixes
and cosmetic changes for now.

  git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/cgroup.git review-iow-v2

Thanks.

-- 
tejun

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 08/10] blkcg: implement blk-ioweight
  2019-06-14 15:09     ` Tejun Heo
@ 2019-06-14 20:50       ` Toke Høiland-Jørgensen
  2019-06-15 15:57         ` Tejun Heo
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 33+ messages in thread
From: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen @ 2019-06-14 20:50 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Tejun Heo
  Cc: axboe, newella, clm, josef, dennisz, lizefan, hannes,
	linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups, ast, daniel,
	kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf, Josef Bacik

Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> writes:

> Hello, Toke.
>
> On Fri, Jun 14, 2019 at 02:17:45PM +0200, Toke Høiland-Jørgensen wrote:
>> One question: How are equal-weight cgroups scheduled relative to each
>> other? Or requests from different processes within a single cgroup for
>> that matter? FIFO? Round-robin? Something else?
>
> Once each cgroup got their hierarchical weight and current vtime for
> the period, they don't talk to each other.  Each is expected to do the
> right thing on their own.  When the period ends, the timer looks at
> how the device is performing, how much each used and so on and then
> make necessary adjustments.  So, there's no direct cross-cgroup
> synchronization.  Each is throttled to their target level
> independently.

Right, makes sense.

> Within a single cgroup, the IOs are FIFO. When an IO has enough vtime
> credit, it just passes through. When it doesn't, it always waits
> behind any other IOs which are already waiting.

OK. Is there any fundamental reason why requests from individual
processes could not be interleaved? Or does it just not give the same
benefits in an IO request context as it does for network packets?

Thanks for the explanations! :)

-Toke

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 08/10] blkcg: implement blk-ioweight
  2019-06-14 20:50       ` Toke Høiland-Jørgensen
@ 2019-06-15 15:57         ` Tejun Heo
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-06-15 15:57 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen
  Cc: axboe, newella, clm, josef, dennisz, lizefan, hannes,
	linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups, ast, daniel,
	kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf, Josef Bacik

Hello,

On Fri, Jun 14, 2019 at 10:50:34PM +0200, Toke Høiland-Jørgensen wrote:
> > Within a single cgroup, the IOs are FIFO. When an IO has enough vtime
> > credit, it just passes through. When it doesn't, it always waits
> > behind any other IOs which are already waiting.
> 
> OK. Is there any fundamental reason why requests from individual
> processes could not be interleaved? Or does it just not give the same
> benefits in an IO request context as it does for network packets?

I don't think there's any fundamental reason we can't.  Currently, it
just isn't doing anything it doesn't have to do while preserving the
existing ordering.  One different from networking could be that
there's more sharing - buffered writes are attributed to the whole
domain (either system or cgroup) rather than individual tasks, so the
ownership of IOs gets a bit mushy beyond resource domain level.

Thanks.

-- 
tejun

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller
  2019-06-14 17:56 ` [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller Tejun Heo
@ 2019-08-20 10:48   ` Paolo Valente
  2019-08-20 15:04     ` Paolo Valente
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 33+ messages in thread
From: Paolo Valente @ 2019-08-20 10:48 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Tejun Heo
  Cc: Jens Axboe, newella, clm, Josef Bacik, dennisz, Li Zefan,
	Johannes Weiner, linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups,
	ast, daniel, kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf



> Il giorno 14 giu 2019, alle ore 19:56, Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> ha scritto:
> 
> On Thu, Jun 13, 2019 at 06:56:10PM -0700, Tejun Heo wrote:
> ...
>> The patchset is also available in the following git branch.
>> 
>> git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/cgroup.git review-iow
> 
> Updated patchset available in the following branch.  Just build fixes
> and cosmetic changes for now.
> 
>  git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/cgroup.git review-iow-v2
> 

Hi Tejun,
I'm running the kernel in your tree above, in an Ubuntu 18.04.

After unmounting the v1 blkio controller that gets mounted at startup
I have created v2 root as follows

$ mount -t cgroup2 none /cgroup

Then I have:
$ ls /cgroup
cgroup.controllers  cgroup.max.descendants  cgroup.stat             cgroup.threads  io.weight.cost_model  system.slice
cgroup.max.depth    cgroup.procs            cgroup.subtree_control  init.scope      io.weight.qos         user.slice

But the following command gives no output:
$ cat /cgroup/io.weight.qos 

And, above all,
$ echo 1 > /cgroup/io.weight.qos 
bash: echo: write error: Invalid argument

No complain in the kernel log.

What am I doing wrong? How can I make the controller work?

Thanks,
Paolo

> Thanks.
> 
> -- 
> tejun


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller
  2019-08-20 10:48   ` Paolo Valente
@ 2019-08-20 15:04     ` Paolo Valente
  2019-08-20 15:19       ` Tejun Heo
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 33+ messages in thread
From: Paolo Valente @ 2019-08-20 15:04 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Tejun Heo
  Cc: Jens Axboe, newella, clm, Josef Bacik, dennisz, Li Zefan,
	Johannes Weiner, linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups,
	ast, daniel, kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf



> Il giorno 20 ago 2019, alle ore 12:48, Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@linaro.org> ha scritto:
> 
> 
> 
>> Il giorno 14 giu 2019, alle ore 19:56, Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> ha scritto:
>> 
>> On Thu, Jun 13, 2019 at 06:56:10PM -0700, Tejun Heo wrote:
>> ...
>>> The patchset is also available in the following git branch.
>>> 
>>> git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/cgroup.git review-iow
>> 
>> Updated patchset available in the following branch.  Just build fixes
>> and cosmetic changes for now.
>> 
>> git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/cgroup.git review-iow-v2
>> 
> 
> Hi Tejun,
> I'm running the kernel in your tree above, in an Ubuntu 18.04.
> 
> After unmounting the v1 blkio controller that gets mounted at startup
> I have created v2 root as follows
> 
> $ mount -t cgroup2 none /cgroup
> 
> Then I have:
> $ ls /cgroup
> cgroup.controllers  cgroup.max.descendants  cgroup.stat             cgroup.threads  io.weight.cost_model  system.slice
> cgroup.max.depth    cgroup.procs            cgroup.subtree_control  init.scope      io.weight.qos         user.slice
> 
> But the following command gives no output:
> $ cat /cgroup/io.weight.qos 
> 
> And, above all,
> $ echo 1 > /cgroup/io.weight.qos 
> bash: echo: write error: Invalid argument
> 
> No complain in the kernel log.
> 
> What am I doing wrong? How can I make the controller work?
> 

I made it, sorry for my usual silly questions (for some reason, I
thought the controller could be enabled globally by just passing a 1).

The problem now is that the controller doesn't seem to work.  I've
emulated 16 clients doing I/O on a SATA SSD.  One client, the target,
does random reads, while the remaining 15 clients, the interferers, do
sequential reads.

Each client is encapsulated in a separate group, but whatever weight
is assigned to the target group, the latter gets the same, extremely
low bandwidth.  I have tried with even the maximum weight ratio, i.e.,
1000 for the target and only 1 for each interferer.  Here are the
results, compared with BFQ (bandwidth in MB/s):

io.weight   BFQ
0.2         3.7

I ran this test with the script S/bandwidth-latency/bandwidth-latency.sh
of the S benchmark suite [1], invoked as follows:
sudo ./bandwidth-latency.sh -t randread -s none -b weight -n 15 -w 1000 -W 1

The above command simply creates groups, assigns weights as follows

echo 1 > /cgroup/InterfererGroup0/io.weight
echo 1 > /cgroup/InterfererGroup1/io.weight
...
echo 1 > /cgroup/InterfererGroup14/io.weight
echo 1000 > /cgroup/interfered/io.weight

and makes one fio instance generate I/O for each group.  The bandwidth
reported above is that reported by the fio instance emulating the
target client.

Am I missing something?

Thanks,
Paolo

[1] https://github.com/Algodev-github/S


> Thanks,
> Paolo
> 
>> Thanks.
>> 
>> -- 
>> tejun
> 


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller
  2019-08-20 15:04     ` Paolo Valente
@ 2019-08-20 15:19       ` Tejun Heo
  2019-08-22  8:58         ` Paolo Valente
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-08-20 15:19 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Paolo Valente
  Cc: Jens Axboe, newella, clm, Josef Bacik, dennisz, Li Zefan,
	Johannes Weiner, linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups,
	ast, daniel, kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf

Hello, Paolo.

On Tue, Aug 20, 2019 at 05:04:25PM +0200, Paolo Valente wrote:
> and makes one fio instance generate I/O for each group.  The bandwidth
> reported above is that reported by the fio instance emulating the
> target client.
> 
> Am I missing something?

If you didn't configure QoS targets, the controller is using device
qdepth saturation as the sole guidance in determining whether the
device needs throttling.  Please try configuring the target latencies.
The bandwidth you see for single stream of rand ios should have direct
correlation with how the latency targets are configured.  The head
letter for the patchset has some examples.

Thanks.

-- 
tejun

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller
  2019-08-20 15:19       ` Tejun Heo
@ 2019-08-22  8:58         ` Paolo Valente
  2019-08-31  6:53           ` Tejun Heo
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 33+ messages in thread
From: Paolo Valente @ 2019-08-22  8:58 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Tejun Heo
  Cc: Jens Axboe, newella, clm, Josef Bacik, dennisz, Li Zefan,
	Johannes Weiner, linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups,
	ast, daniel, kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf



> Il giorno 20 ago 2019, alle ore 17:19, Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> ha scritto:
> 
> Hello, Paolo.
> 
> On Tue, Aug 20, 2019 at 05:04:25PM +0200, Paolo Valente wrote:
>> and makes one fio instance generate I/O for each group.  The bandwidth
>> reported above is that reported by the fio instance emulating the
>> target client.
>> 
>> Am I missing something?
> 
> If you didn't configure QoS targets, the controller is using device
> qdepth saturation as the sole guidance in determining whether the
> device needs throttling.  Please try configuring the target latencies.
> The bandwidth you see for single stream of rand ios should have direct
> correlation with how the latency targets are configured.  The head
> letter for the patchset has some examples.
> 

Ok, I tried with the parameters reported for a SATA SSD:

rpct=95.00 rlat=10000 wpct=95.00 wlat=20000 min=50.00 max=400.00

and with a simpler configuration [1]: one target doing random reads
and only four interferers doing sequential reads, with all the
processes (groups) having the same weight.

But there seemed to be little or no control on I/O, because the target
got only 1.84 MB/s, against 1.15 MB/s without any control.

So I tried with rlat=1000 and rlat=100.

Control did improve, with same results for both values of rlat.  The
problem is that these results still seem rather bad, both in terms of
throughput guaranteed to the target and in terms of total throughput.
Here are results compared with BFQ (throughputs measured in MB/s):

                           io.weight            BFQ
target's throughput        3.415                6.224        
total throughput           159.14               321.375

Am I doing something else wrong?

Thanks,
Paolo

[1] sudo ./bandwidth-latency.sh -t randread -s none -b weight -n 4

> Thanks.
> 
> -- 
> tejun


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller
  2019-08-22  8:58         ` Paolo Valente
@ 2019-08-31  6:53           ` Tejun Heo
  2019-08-31  7:10             ` Paolo Valente
  2019-09-02 15:45             ` Paolo Valente
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-08-31  6:53 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Paolo Valente
  Cc: Jens Axboe, newella, clm, Josef Bacik, dennisz, Li Zefan,
	Johannes Weiner, linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups,
	ast, daniel, kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf

Hello, Paolo.

On Thu, Aug 22, 2019 at 10:58:22AM +0200, Paolo Valente wrote:
> Ok, I tried with the parameters reported for a SATA SSD:
> 
> rpct=95.00 rlat=10000 wpct=95.00 wlat=20000 min=50.00 max=400.00

Sorry, I should have explained it with a lot more details.

There are two things - the cost model and qos params.  The default SSD
cost model parameters are derived by averaging a number of mainstream
SSD parameters.  As a ballpark, this can be good enough because while
the overall performance varied quite a bit from one ssd to another,
the relative cost of different types of IOs wasn't drastically
different.

However, this means that the performance baseline can easily be way
off from 100% depending on the specific device in use.  In the above,
you're specifying min/max which limits how far the controller is
allowed to adjust the overall cost estimation.  50% and 400% are
numbers which may make sense if the cost model parameter is expected
to fall somewhere around 100% - ie. if the parameters are for that
specific device.

In your script, you're using default model params but limiting vrate
range.  It's likely that your device is significantly slower than what
the default parameters are expecting.  However, because min vrate is
limited to 50%, it doesn't throttle below 50% of the estimated cost,
so if the device is significantly slower than that, nothing gets
controlled.

> and with a simpler configuration [1]: one target doing random reads

And without QoS latency targets, the controller is purely going by
queue depth depletion which works fine for many usual workloads such
as larger reads and writes but isn't likely to serve low-concurrency
latency-sensitive IOs well.

> and only four interferers doing sequential reads, with all the
> processes (groups) having the same weight.
> 
> But there seemed to be little or no control on I/O, because the target
> got only 1.84 MB/s, against 1.15 MB/s without any control.
> 
> So I tried with rlat=1000 and rlat=100.

And this won't do anything as all rlat/wlat does is regulating how the
overall vrate should be adjusted and it's being min'd at 50%.

> Control did improve, with same results for both values of rlat.  The
> problem is that these results still seem rather bad, both in terms of
> throughput guaranteed to the target and in terms of total throughput.
> Here are results compared with BFQ (throughputs measured in MB/s):
> 
>                            io.weight            BFQ
> target's throughput        3.415                6.224        
> total throughput           159.14               321.375

So, what should have been configured is something like

$ echo '8:0 enable=1 rpct=95 rlat=10000 wpct=95 wlat=20000' > /sys/fs/cgroup/io.cost.qos

which just says "target 10ms p(95) read latency and 20ms p(95) write
latency" without putting any restrictions on vrate range.

With that, I got the following on Micron_1100_MTFDDAV256TBN which is a
pretty old 256GB SATA drive.

  Aggregated throughput:
	   min         max         avg     std_dev     conf99%
	266.73      275.71      271.38     4.05144     45.7635
  Interfered total throughput:
	   min         max         avg     std_dev
	 9.608      13.008      10.941    0.664938

During the run, iocost-monitor.py looked like the following.

  sda RUN  per=40ms cur_per=2074.351:v1008.844 busy= +0 vrate= 59.85% params=ssd_dfl(CQ)
			    active    weight      hweight% inflt% del_ms usages%
  InterfererGroup0             *   100/  100  22.94/ 20.00   0.00  0*000 023:023:023
  InterfererGroup1             *   100/  100  22.94/ 20.00   0.00  0*000 023:023:023
  InterfererGroup2             *   100/  100  22.94/ 20.00   0.00  0*000 025:023:021
  InterfererGroup3             *   100/  100  22.94/ 20.00   0.00  0*000 023:023:023
  interfered                   *    36/  100   8.26/ 20.00   0.42  0*000 003:004:004

Note that interfered is reported to only use 3-4% of the disk capacity
while configured to consume 20%.  This is because with single
concurrency 4k randread job, its ability to consume IO capacity is
limited by the completion latency.

10ms is pretty generous (ie. more work-conserving) target for SSDs.
Let's say we're willing to tighten it to trade off total work for
tighter latency.

$ echo '8:0 enable=1 rpct=95 rlat=2500 wpct=95 wlat=5000' > /sys/fs/cgroup/io.cost.qos

  Aggregated throughput:
	   min         max         avg     std_dev     conf99%
	147.06      172.18     154.608      11.783     133.096
  Interfered total throughput:
	   min         max         avg     std_dev
	17.992       19.32      18.698    0.313105

and the monitoring output

  sda RUN  per=10ms cur_per=2927.152:v1556.138 busy= -2 vrate= 34.74% params=ssd_dfl(CQ)
			    active    weight      hweight% inflt% del_ms usages%
  InterfererGroup0             *   100/  100  20.00/ 20.00 386.11  0*000 070:020:020
  InterfererGroup1             *   100/  100  20.00/ 20.00 386.11  0*000 070:020:020
  InterfererGroup2             *   100/  100  20.00/ 20.00 386.11  0*000 070:020:020
  InterfererGroup3             *   100/  100  20.00/ 20.00   0.00  0*000 020:020:020
  interfered                   *   100/  100  20.00/ 20.00   1.21  0*000 010:014:017

The followings happened.

* The vrate is now hovering way lower.  The device is now doing less
  total work to acheive tighter completion latencies.

* The overall throughput dropped but interfered's utilization is now
  significantly higher along with its bandwidth from lower completion
  latencies.

For reference:

[Disabled]

  Aggregated throughput:
	   min         max         avg     std_dev     conf99%
	493.98      511.37     502.808     9.52773     107.621
  Interfered total throughput:
	   min         max         avg     std_dev
	 0.056       0.304       0.107   0.0691052

[Enabled, no QoS config]

  Aggregated throughput:
	   min         max         avg     std_dev     conf99%
	429.07      449.59     437.597     8.64952     97.7015
  Interfered total throughput:
	   min         max         avg     std_dev
	 0.456        3.12        1.08    0.774318

Thanks.

-- 
tejun

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller
  2019-08-31  6:53           ` Tejun Heo
@ 2019-08-31  7:10             ` Paolo Valente
  2019-08-31 11:20               ` Tejun Heo
  2019-09-02 15:45             ` Paolo Valente
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 33+ messages in thread
From: Paolo Valente @ 2019-08-31  7:10 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Tejun Heo
  Cc: Jens Axboe, newella, clm, Josef Bacik, dennisz, Li Zefan,
	Johannes Weiner, linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups,
	ast, daniel, kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf

Hi Tejun,
thank you very much for this extra information, I'll try the
configuration you suggest.  In this respect, is this still the branch
to use

https://kernel.googlesource.com/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/cgroup/+/refs/heads/review-iocost-v2

also after the issue spotted two days ago [1]?

Thanks,
Paolo

[1] https://lkml.org/lkml/2019/8/29/910

> Il giorno 31 ago 2019, alle ore 08:53, Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> ha scritto:
> 
> Hello, Paolo.
> 
> On Thu, Aug 22, 2019 at 10:58:22AM +0200, Paolo Valente wrote:
>> Ok, I tried with the parameters reported for a SATA SSD:
>> 
>> rpct=95.00 rlat=10000 wpct=95.00 wlat=20000 min=50.00 max=400.00
> 
> Sorry, I should have explained it with a lot more details.
> 
> There are two things - the cost model and qos params.  The default SSD
> cost model parameters are derived by averaging a number of mainstream
> SSD parameters.  As a ballpark, this can be good enough because while
> the overall performance varied quite a bit from one ssd to another,
> the relative cost of different types of IOs wasn't drastically
> different.
> 
> However, this means that the performance baseline can easily be way
> off from 100% depending on the specific device in use.  In the above,
> you're specifying min/max which limits how far the controller is
> allowed to adjust the overall cost estimation.  50% and 400% are
> numbers which may make sense if the cost model parameter is expected
> to fall somewhere around 100% - ie. if the parameters are for that
> specific device.
> 
> In your script, you're using default model params but limiting vrate
> range.  It's likely that your device is significantly slower than what
> the default parameters are expecting.  However, because min vrate is
> limited to 50%, it doesn't throttle below 50% of the estimated cost,
> so if the device is significantly slower than that, nothing gets
> controlled.
> 
>> and with a simpler configuration [1]: one target doing random reads
> 
> And without QoS latency targets, the controller is purely going by
> queue depth depletion which works fine for many usual workloads such
> as larger reads and writes but isn't likely to serve low-concurrency
> latency-sensitive IOs well.
> 
>> and only four interferers doing sequential reads, with all the
>> processes (groups) having the same weight.
>> 
>> But there seemed to be little or no control on I/O, because the target
>> got only 1.84 MB/s, against 1.15 MB/s without any control.
>> 
>> So I tried with rlat=1000 and rlat=100.
> 
> And this won't do anything as all rlat/wlat does is regulating how the
> overall vrate should be adjusted and it's being min'd at 50%.
> 
>> Control did improve, with same results for both values of rlat.  The
>> problem is that these results still seem rather bad, both in terms of
>> throughput guaranteed to the target and in terms of total throughput.
>> Here are results compared with BFQ (throughputs measured in MB/s):
>> 
>>                           io.weight            BFQ
>> target's throughput        3.415                6.224        
>> total throughput           159.14               321.375
> 
> So, what should have been configured is something like
> 
> $ echo '8:0 enable=1 rpct=95 rlat=10000 wpct=95 wlat=20000' > /sys/fs/cgroup/io.cost.qos
> 
> which just says "target 10ms p(95) read latency and 20ms p(95) write
> latency" without putting any restrictions on vrate range.
> 
> With that, I got the following on Micron_1100_MTFDDAV256TBN which is a
> pretty old 256GB SATA drive.
> 
>  Aggregated throughput:
> 	   min         max         avg     std_dev     conf99%
> 	266.73      275.71      271.38     4.05144     45.7635
>  Interfered total throughput:
> 	   min         max         avg     std_dev
> 	 9.608      13.008      10.941    0.664938
> 
> During the run, iocost-monitor.py looked like the following.
> 
>  sda RUN  per=40ms cur_per=2074.351:v1008.844 busy= +0 vrate= 59.85% params=ssd_dfl(CQ)
> 			    active    weight      hweight% inflt% del_ms usages%
>  InterfererGroup0             *   100/  100  22.94/ 20.00   0.00  0*000 023:023:023
>  InterfererGroup1             *   100/  100  22.94/ 20.00   0.00  0*000 023:023:023
>  InterfererGroup2             *   100/  100  22.94/ 20.00   0.00  0*000 025:023:021
>  InterfererGroup3             *   100/  100  22.94/ 20.00   0.00  0*000 023:023:023
>  interfered                   *    36/  100   8.26/ 20.00   0.42  0*000 003:004:004
> 
> Note that interfered is reported to only use 3-4% of the disk capacity
> while configured to consume 20%.  This is because with single
> concurrency 4k randread job, its ability to consume IO capacity is
> limited by the completion latency.
> 
> 10ms is pretty generous (ie. more work-conserving) target for SSDs.
> Let's say we're willing to tighten it to trade off total work for
> tighter latency.
> 
> $ echo '8:0 enable=1 rpct=95 rlat=2500 wpct=95 wlat=5000' > /sys/fs/cgroup/io.cost.qos
> 
>  Aggregated throughput:
> 	   min         max         avg     std_dev     conf99%
> 	147.06      172.18     154.608      11.783     133.096
>  Interfered total throughput:
> 	   min         max         avg     std_dev
> 	17.992       19.32      18.698    0.313105
> 
> and the monitoring output
> 
>  sda RUN  per=10ms cur_per=2927.152:v1556.138 busy= -2 vrate= 34.74% params=ssd_dfl(CQ)
> 			    active    weight      hweight% inflt% del_ms usages%
>  InterfererGroup0             *   100/  100  20.00/ 20.00 386.11  0*000 070:020:020
>  InterfererGroup1             *   100/  100  20.00/ 20.00 386.11  0*000 070:020:020
>  InterfererGroup2             *   100/  100  20.00/ 20.00 386.11  0*000 070:020:020
>  InterfererGroup3             *   100/  100  20.00/ 20.00   0.00  0*000 020:020:020
>  interfered                   *   100/  100  20.00/ 20.00   1.21  0*000 010:014:017
> 
> The followings happened.
> 
> * The vrate is now hovering way lower.  The device is now doing less
>  total work to acheive tighter completion latencies.
> 
> * The overall throughput dropped but interfered's utilization is now
>  significantly higher along with its bandwidth from lower completion
>  latencies.
> 
> For reference:
> 
> [Disabled]
> 
>  Aggregated throughput:
> 	   min         max         avg     std_dev     conf99%
> 	493.98      511.37     502.808     9.52773     107.621
>  Interfered total throughput:
> 	   min         max         avg     std_dev
> 	 0.056       0.304       0.107   0.0691052
> 
> [Enabled, no QoS config]
> 
>  Aggregated throughput:
> 	   min         max         avg     std_dev     conf99%
> 	429.07      449.59     437.597     8.64952     97.7015
>  Interfered total throughput:
> 	   min         max         avg     std_dev
> 	 0.456        3.12        1.08    0.774318
> 
> Thanks.
> 
> -- 
> tejun


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller
  2019-08-31  7:10             ` Paolo Valente
@ 2019-08-31 11:20               ` Tejun Heo
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-08-31 11:20 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Paolo Valente
  Cc: Jens Axboe, newella, clm, Josef Bacik, dennisz, Li Zefan,
	Johannes Weiner, linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups,
	ast, daniel, kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf

Hello,

On Sat, Aug 31, 2019 at 09:10:26AM +0200, Paolo Valente wrote:
> Hi Tejun,
> thank you very much for this extra information, I'll try the
> configuration you suggest.  In this respect, is this still the branch
> to use
> 
> https://kernel.googlesource.com/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/cgroup/+/refs/heads/review-iocost-v2
> 
> also after the issue spotted two days ago [1]?

block/for-next is the branch which has all the updates.

  git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/axboe/linux-block.git for-next

Thanks.

-- 
tejun

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller
  2019-08-31  6:53           ` Tejun Heo
  2019-08-31  7:10             ` Paolo Valente
@ 2019-09-02 15:45             ` Paolo Valente
  2019-09-02 15:56               ` Tejun Heo
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 33+ messages in thread
From: Paolo Valente @ 2019-09-02 15:45 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Tejun Heo
  Cc: Jens Axboe, newella, clm, Josef Bacik, dennisz, Li Zefan,
	Johannes Weiner, linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups,
	ast, daniel, kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf



> Il giorno 31 ago 2019, alle ore 08:53, Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> ha scritto:
> 
> Hello, Paolo.
> 

Hi Tejun,

> On Thu, Aug 22, 2019 at 10:58:22AM +0200, Paolo Valente wrote:
>> Ok, I tried with the parameters reported for a SATA SSD:
>> 
>> rpct=95.00 rlat=10000 wpct=95.00 wlat=20000 min=50.00 max=400.00
> 
> Sorry, I should have explained it with a lot more details.
> 
> There are two things - the cost model and qos params.  The default SSD
> cost model parameters are derived by averaging a number of mainstream
> SSD parameters.  As a ballpark, this can be good enough because while
> the overall performance varied quite a bit from one ssd to another,
> the relative cost of different types of IOs wasn't drastically
> different.
> 
> However, this means that the performance baseline can easily be way
> off from 100% depending on the specific device in use.  In the above,
> you're specifying min/max which limits how far the controller is
> allowed to adjust the overall cost estimation.  50% and 400% are
> numbers which may make sense if the cost model parameter is expected
> to fall somewhere around 100% - ie. if the parameters are for that
> specific device.
> 
> In your script, you're using default model params but limiting vrate
> range.  It's likely that your device is significantly slower than what
> the default parameters are expecting.  However, because min vrate is
> limited to 50%, it doesn't throttle below 50% of the estimated cost,
> so if the device is significantly slower than that, nothing gets
> controlled.
> 

Thanks for this extra explanations.  It is a little bit difficult for
me to understand how the min/max teaks for exactly, but you did give
me the general idea.

>> and with a simpler configuration [1]: one target doing random reads
> 
> And without QoS latency targets, the controller is purely going by
> queue depth depletion which works fine for many usual workloads such
> as larger reads and writes but isn't likely to serve low-concurrency
> latency-sensitive IOs well.
> 
>> and only four interferers doing sequential reads, with all the
>> processes (groups) having the same weight.
>> 
>> But there seemed to be little or no control on I/O, because the target
>> got only 1.84 MB/s, against 1.15 MB/s without any control.
>> 
>> So I tried with rlat=1000 and rlat=100.
> 
> And this won't do anything as all rlat/wlat does is regulating how the
> overall vrate should be adjusted and it's being min'd at 50%.
> 
>> Control did improve, with same results for both values of rlat.  The
>> problem is that these results still seem rather bad, both in terms of
>> throughput guaranteed to the target and in terms of total throughput.
>> Here are results compared with BFQ (throughputs measured in MB/s):
>> 
>>                           io.weight            BFQ
>> target's throughput        3.415                6.224        
>> total throughput           159.14               321.375
> 
> So, what should have been configured is something like
> 
> $ echo '8:0 enable=1 rpct=95 rlat=10000 wpct=95 wlat=20000' > /sys/fs/cgroup/io.cost.qos
> 

Unfortunately, io.cost does not seem to control I/O with this
configuration, as it gives the interfered the same bw as no I/O
control (i.e., none as I/O scheduler and no I/O controller or policy
active):

                          none        io.weight            BFQ
target's throughput       0.8            0.7                 4
total throughput          506            506               344

The test case is still the rand reader against 7 seq readers.

> which just says "target 10ms p(95) read latency and 20ms p(95) write
> latency" without putting any restrictions on vrate range.
> 
> With that, I got the following on Micron_1100_MTFDDAV256TBN which is a
> pretty old 256GB SATA drive.
> 
>  Aggregated throughput:
> 	   min         max         avg     std_dev     conf99%
> 	266.73      275.71      271.38     4.05144     45.7635
>  Interfered total throughput:
> 	   min         max         avg     std_dev
> 	 9.608      13.008      10.941    0.664938
> 
> During the run, iocost-monitor.py looked like the following.
> 
>  sda RUN  per=40ms cur_per=2074.351:v1008.844 busy= +0 vrate= 59.85% params=ssd_dfl(CQ)
> 			    active    weight      hweight% inflt% del_ms usages%
>  InterfererGroup0             *   100/  100  22.94/ 20.00   0.00  0*000 023:023:023
>  InterfererGroup1             *   100/  100  22.94/ 20.00   0.00  0*000 023:023:023
>  InterfererGroup2             *   100/  100  22.94/ 20.00   0.00  0*000 025:023:021
>  InterfererGroup3             *   100/  100  22.94/ 20.00   0.00  0*000 023:023:023
>  interfered                   *    36/  100   8.26/ 20.00   0.42  0*000 003:004:004
> 
> Note that interfered is reported to only use 3-4% of the disk capacity
> while configured to consume 20%.  This is because with single
> concurrency 4k randread job, its ability to consume IO capacity is
> limited by the completion latency.
> 
> 10ms is pretty generous (ie. more work-conserving) target for SSDs.
> Let's say we're willing to tighten it to trade off total work for
> tighter latency.
> 
> $ echo '8:0 enable=1 rpct=95 rlat=2500 wpct=95 wlat=5000' > /sys/fs/cgroup/io.cost.qos
> 

Now io.weight does control I/O, but throughputs fluctuate a lot
between runs and during each run.  After extending the duration of
each run to 20 seconds, an average run for io.weight and BFQ gives the
following throughputs (same throughputs as above for none):

                          none        io.weight            BFQ
target's throughput       0.8            2.3               3.6
total throughput          506            321               360

For completeness I tried also with rlat=1000.  But throughputs dropped
dramatically:

                          none        io.weight            BFQ
target's throughput       0.8            0.2               3.6
total throughput          506            17               360

Are these results in line with your expectations?  If they are, then
I'd like to extend benchmarks to more mixes of workloads.  Or should I
try some other QoS configuration first?

Thanks,
Paolo

>  Aggregated throughput:
> 	   min         max         avg     std_dev     conf99%
> 	147.06      172.18     154.608      11.783     133.096
>  Interfered total throughput:
> 	   min         max         avg     std_dev
> 	17.992       19.32      18.698    0.313105
> 
> and the monitoring output
> 
>  sda RUN  per=10ms cur_per=2927.152:v1556.138 busy= -2 vrate= 34.74% params=ssd_dfl(CQ)
> 			    active    weight      hweight% inflt% del_ms usages%
>  InterfererGroup0             *   100/  100  20.00/ 20.00 386.11  0*000 070:020:020
>  InterfererGroup1             *   100/  100  20.00/ 20.00 386.11  0*000 070:020:020
>  InterfererGroup2             *   100/  100  20.00/ 20.00 386.11  0*000 070:020:020
>  InterfererGroup3             *   100/  100  20.00/ 20.00   0.00  0*000 020:020:020
>  interfered                   *   100/  100  20.00/ 20.00   1.21  0*000 010:014:017
> 
> The followings happened.
> 
> * The vrate is now hovering way lower.  The device is now doing less
>  total work to acheive tighter completion latencies.
> 
> * The overall throughput dropped but interfered's utilization is now
>  significantly higher along with its bandwidth from lower completion
>  latencies.
> 
> For reference:
> 
> [Disabled]
> 
>  Aggregated throughput:
> 	   min         max         avg     std_dev     conf99%
> 	493.98      511.37     502.808     9.52773     107.621
>  Interfered total throughput:
> 	   min         max         avg     std_dev
> 	 0.056       0.304       0.107   0.0691052
> 
> [Enabled, no QoS config]
> 
>  Aggregated throughput:
> 	   min         max         avg     std_dev     conf99%
> 	429.07      449.59     437.597     8.64952     97.7015
>  Interfered total throughput:
> 	   min         max         avg     std_dev
> 	 0.456        3.12        1.08    0.774318
> 
> Thanks.
> 
> -- 
> tejun


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller
  2019-09-02 15:45             ` Paolo Valente
@ 2019-09-02 15:56               ` Tejun Heo
  2019-09-02 19:43                 ` Paolo Valente
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-09-02 15:56 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Paolo Valente
  Cc: Jens Axboe, newella, clm, Josef Bacik, dennisz, Li Zefan,
	Johannes Weiner, linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups,
	ast, daniel, kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf

On Mon, Sep 02, 2019 at 05:45:50PM +0200, Paolo Valente wrote:
> Thanks for this extra explanations.  It is a little bit difficult for
> me to understand how the min/max teaks for exactly, but you did give
> me the general idea.

It just limits how far high and low the IO issue rate, measured in
cost, can go.  ie. if max is at 200%, the controller won't issue more
than twice of what the cost model says 100% is.

> Are these results in line with your expectations?  If they are, then
> I'd like to extend benchmarks to more mixes of workloads.  Or should I
> try some other QoS configuration first?

They aren't.  Can you please include the content of io.cost.qos and
io.cost.model before each run?  Note that partial writes to subset of
parameters don't clear other parameters.

Thanks.

-- 
tejun

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller
  2019-09-02 15:56               ` Tejun Heo
@ 2019-09-02 19:43                 ` Paolo Valente
  2019-09-05 16:55                   ` Tejun Heo
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 33+ messages in thread
From: Paolo Valente @ 2019-09-02 19:43 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Tejun Heo
  Cc: Jens Axboe, newella, clm, Josef Bacik, dennisz, Li Zefan,
	Johannes Weiner, linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups,
	ast, daniel, kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf



> Il giorno 2 set 2019, alle ore 17:56, Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> ha scritto:
> 
> On Mon, Sep 02, 2019 at 05:45:50PM +0200, Paolo Valente wrote:
>> Thanks for this extra explanations.  It is a little bit difficult for
>> me to understand how the min/max teaks for exactly, but you did give
>> me the general idea.
> 
> It just limits how far high and low the IO issue rate, measured in
> cost, can go.  ie. if max is at 200%, the controller won't issue more
> than twice of what the cost model says 100% is.
> 
>> Are these results in line with your expectations?  If they are, then
>> I'd like to extend benchmarks to more mixes of workloads.  Or should I
>> try some other QoS configuration first?
> 
> They aren't.  Can you please include the content of io.cost.qos and
> io.cost.model before each run?  Note that partial writes to subset of
> parameters don't clear other parameters.
> 

Yep.  I've added the printing of the two parameters in the script, and
I'm pasting the whole output, in case you could get also some other
useful piece of information from it.

$ sudo ./bandwidth-latency.sh -t randread -s none -b weight -n 7 -d 20
Switching to none for sda
echo "8:0 enable=1 rpct=95 rlat=2500 wpct=95 wlat=5000" > /cgroup/io.cost.qos
/cgroup/io.cost.qos 8:0 enable=1 ctrl=user rpct=95.00 rlat=2500 wpct=95.00 wlat=5000 min=1.00 max=10000.00
/cgroup/io.cost.model 8:0 ctrl=auto model=linear rbps=488636629 rseqiops=8932 rrandiops=8518 wbps=427891549 wseqiops=28755 wrandiops=21940
Not changing weight/limits for interferer group 0
Not changing weight/limits for interferer group 1
Not changing weight/limits for interferer group 2
Not changing weight/limits for interferer group 3
Not changing weight/limits for interferer group 4
Not changing weight/limits for interferer group 5
Not changing weight/limits for interferer group 6
Not changing weight/limits for interfered
Starting Interferer group 0
start_fio_jobs InterfererGroup0 0 default read MAX linear 1 1 0 0 4k /home/paolo/local-S/bandwidth-latency/../workfiles/largefile0
Starting Interferer group 1
start_fio_jobs InterfererGroup1 0 default read MAX linear 1 1 0 0 4k /home/paolo/local-S/bandwidth-latency/../workfiles/largefile1
Starting Interferer group 2
start_fio_jobs InterfererGroup2 0 default read MAX linear 1 1 0 0 4k /home/paolo/local-S/bandwidth-latency/../workfiles/largefile2
Starting Interferer group 3
start_fio_jobs InterfererGroup3 0 default read MAX linear 1 1 0 0 4k /home/paolo/local-S/bandwidth-latency/../workfiles/largefile3
Starting Interferer group 4
start_fio_jobs InterfererGroup4 0 default read MAX linear 1 1 0 0 4k /home/paolo/local-S/bandwidth-latency/../workfiles/largefile4
Starting Interferer group 5
start_fio_jobs InterfererGroup5 0 default read MAX linear 1 1 0 0 4k /home/paolo/local-S/bandwidth-latency/../workfiles/largefile5
Starting Interferer group 6
start_fio_jobs InterfererGroup6 0 default read MAX linear 1 1 0 0 4k /home/paolo/local-S/bandwidth-latency/../workfiles/largefile6
Linux 5.3.0-rc6+ (paolo-ThinkPad-W520) 	02/09/2019 	_x86_64_	(8 CPU)

02/09/2019 21:39:11
Device             tps    MB_read/s    MB_wrtn/s    MB_read    MB_wrtn
sda              66.53         5.22         0.10       1385         27

start_fio_jobs interfered 20 default randread MAX poisson 1 1 0 0 4k /home/paolo/local-S/bandwidth-latency/../workfiles/largefile_interfered0
02/09/2019 21:39:14
Device             tps    MB_read/s    MB_wrtn/s    MB_read    MB_wrtn
sda             154.67        20.63         0.05         61          0

02/09/2019 21:39:17
Device             tps    MB_read/s    MB_wrtn/s    MB_read    MB_wrtn
sda             453.00        64.27         0.00        192          0

02/09/2019 21:39:20
Device             tps    MB_read/s    MB_wrtn/s    MB_read    MB_wrtn
sda             675.33        95.99         0.00        287          0

02/09/2019 21:39:23
Device             tps    MB_read/s    MB_wrtn/s    MB_read    MB_wrtn
sda            1907.67       348.61         0.00       1045          0

02/09/2019 21:39:26
Device             tps    MB_read/s    MB_wrtn/s    MB_read    MB_wrtn
sda            2414.67       462.98         0.00       1388          0

02/09/2019 21:39:29
Device             tps    MB_read/s    MB_wrtn/s    MB_read    MB_wrtn
sda            2429.67       438.71         0.00       1316          0

02/09/2019 21:39:32
Device             tps    MB_read/s    MB_wrtn/s    MB_read    MB_wrtn
sda            2437.00       475.79         0.00       1427          0

02/09/2019 21:39:35
Device             tps    MB_read/s    MB_wrtn/s    MB_read    MB_wrtn
sda            2162.33       346.97         0.00       1040          0

Results for one rand reader against 7 seq readers (I/O depth 1), weight-none with weights: (default, default)
Aggregated throughput:
         min         max         avg     std_dev     conf99%
       64.27      475.79     319.046     171.233     1011.97
Read throughput:
         min         max         avg     std_dev     conf99%
       64.27      475.79     319.046     171.233     1011.97
Write throughput:
         min         max         avg     std_dev     conf99%
           0           0           0           0           0
Interfered total throughput:
         min         max         avg     std_dev
       1.032       4.455       2.266    0.742696
Interfered per-request total latency:
         min         max         avg     std_dev
        0.11      12.005      1.7545    0.878281

Thanks,
Paolo


> Thanks.
> 
> -- 
> tejun


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller
  2019-09-02 19:43                 ` Paolo Valente
@ 2019-09-05 16:55                   ` Tejun Heo
  2019-09-06  9:07                     ` Paolo Valente
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-09-05 16:55 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Paolo Valente
  Cc: Jens Axboe, newella, clm, Josef Bacik, dennisz, Li Zefan,
	Johannes Weiner, linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups,
	ast, daniel, kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf

Hello, Paolo.

So, I'm currently verifying iocost in the FB fleet.  Around three
thousand machines running v5.2 (+ some backports) with btrfs on a
handful of different models of consumer grade SSDs.  I haven't seen
complete loss of control as you're reporting.  Given that you're
reporting the same thing on io.latency, which is deployed on multiple
orders of magnitude more machines at this point, it's likely that
there's something common affecting your test setup.  Can you please
describe your test configuration and if you aren't already try testing
on btrfs?

Thanks.

-- 
tejun

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller
  2019-09-05 16:55                   ` Tejun Heo
@ 2019-09-06  9:07                     ` Paolo Valente
  2019-09-06 14:58                       ` Tejun Heo
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 33+ messages in thread
From: Paolo Valente @ 2019-09-06  9:07 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Tejun Heo
  Cc: Jens Axboe, newella, clm, Josef Bacik, dennisz, Li Zefan,
	Johannes Weiner, linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups,
	ast, daniel, kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf



> Il giorno 5 set 2019, alle ore 18:55, Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> ha scritto:
> 
> Hello, Paolo.
> 
> So, I'm currently verifying iocost in the FB fleet.  Around three
> thousand machines running v5.2 (+ some backports) with btrfs on a
> handful of different models of consumer grade SSDs.  I haven't seen
> complete loss of control as you're reporting.  Given that you're
> reporting the same thing on io.latency, which is deployed on multiple
> orders of magnitude more machines at this point, it's likely that
> there's something common affecting your test setup.

Yep, I had that doubt too, so I extended my tests to one more PC and
two more drives: a fast SAMSUNG NVMe SSD 970 PRO and an HITACHI
HTS72755 HDD, using the QoS configurations suggested in your last
email.  As for the filesystem, I'm interested in ext4, because it is
the most widely used file system, and, with some workloads, it makes
it hard to control I/O while keeping throughput high.  I'll provide hw
and sw details in my reply to your next question.  I'm willing to run
tests with btrfs too, at a later time.

Something is wrong with io.cost also with the other PC and the other
drives.  In the next table, each pair of numbers contains the target's
throughput and the total throughput:

                  none                 io.cost               bfq
SAMSUNG SSD    11.373  3295.517     6.468  3273.892    10.802  1862.288
HITACHI HDD    0.026    11.531      0.042    30.299     0.067    76.642

With the SAMSUNG SSD, io.cost gives to the target less throughput than
none (and bfq is behaving badly too, but this is my problem).  On the
HDD, io.cost gives to the target a little bit more than half the
throughput guaranteed by bfq, and reaches less than half the total
throughput reached by bfq.

I do agree that three thousand is an overwhelming number of machines,
and I'll probably never have that many resources for my tests.  Still,
it seems rather unlikely that two different PCs, and three different
drives, all suffer from a common anomaly that causes troubles only to
io.cost and io.latency.

I try to never overlook also me being the problematic link in the
chain.  But I'm executing this test with the public script I mentioned
in my previous emails; and all steps seem correct.

>  Can you please
> describe your test configuration and if you aren't already try testing
> on btrfs?
> 

PC 1: Thinkpad W520, Ubuntu 18.04 (no configuration change w.r.t.
defaults), PLEXTOR SATA PX-256M5S SSD, HITACHI HTS72755 HDD, ext4.

PC 2: Thinkpad X1 Extreme, Ubuntu 19.04 (no configuration change
w.r.t.  defaults), SAMSUNG NVMe SSD 970 PRO, ext4.

If you need more details, just ask.

Thanks,
Paolo



> Thanks.
> 
> -- 
> tejun


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller
  2019-09-06  9:07                     ` Paolo Valente
@ 2019-09-06 14:58                       ` Tejun Heo
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 33+ messages in thread
From: Tejun Heo @ 2019-09-06 14:58 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Paolo Valente
  Cc: Jens Axboe, newella, clm, Josef Bacik, dennisz, Li Zefan,
	Johannes Weiner, linux-kernel, linux-block, kernel-team, cgroups,
	ast, daniel, kafai, songliubraving, yhs, bpf

Hello, Paolo.

On Fri, Sep 06, 2019 at 11:07:17AM +0200, Paolo Valente wrote:
> email.  As for the filesystem, I'm interested in ext4, because it is
> the most widely used file system, and, with some workloads, it makes

Ext4 can't do writeback control as it currently stands.  It creates
hard ordering across data writes from different cgroups.  No matter
what mechanism you use for IO control, it is broken.  I'm sure it's
fixable but does need some work.

That said, read-only tests like you're doing should work fine on ext4
too but the last time I tested io control on ext4 is more than a year
ago so something might have changed in the meantime.

Just to rule out this isn't what you're hitting.  Can you please run
your test on btrfs with the following patchset applied?

 http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190710192818.1069475-1-tj@kernel.org

And as I wrote in the previous reply, I did run your benchmark on one
of the test machines and it did work fine.

Thanks.

-- 
tejun

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 33+ messages in thread

end of thread, back to index

Thread overview: 33+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2019-06-14  1:56 [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller Tejun Heo
2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 01/10] blkcg: pass @q and @blkcg into blkcg_pol_alloc_pd_fn() Tejun Heo
2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 02/10] blkcg: make ->cpd_init_fn() optional Tejun Heo
2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 03/10] blkcg: separate blkcg_conf_get_disk() out of blkg_conf_prep() Tejun Heo
2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 04/10] block/rq_qos: add rq_qos_merge() Tejun Heo
2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 05/10] block/rq_qos: implement rq_qos_ops->queue_depth_changed() Tejun Heo
2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 06/10] blkcg: s/RQ_QOS_CGROUP/RQ_QOS_LATENCY/ Tejun Heo
2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 07/10] blk-mq: add optional request->pre_start_time_ns Tejun Heo
2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 08/10] blkcg: implement blk-ioweight Tejun Heo
2019-06-14 12:17   ` Toke Høiland-Jørgensen
2019-06-14 15:09     ` Tejun Heo
2019-06-14 20:50       ` Toke Høiland-Jørgensen
2019-06-15 15:57         ` Tejun Heo
2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 09/10] blkcg: add tools/cgroup/monitor_ioweight.py Tejun Heo
2019-06-14  1:56 ` [PATCH 10/10] blkcg: implement BPF_PROG_TYPE_IO_COST Tejun Heo
2019-06-14 11:32   ` Quentin Monnet
2019-06-14 14:52     ` Tejun Heo
2019-06-14 16:35       ` Alexei Starovoitov
2019-06-14 17:09         ` Tejun Heo
2019-06-14 17:56 ` [PATCHSET block/for-next] IO cost model based work-conserving porportional controller Tejun Heo
2019-08-20 10:48   ` Paolo Valente
2019-08-20 15:04     ` Paolo Valente
2019-08-20 15:19       ` Tejun Heo
2019-08-22  8:58         ` Paolo Valente
2019-08-31  6:53           ` Tejun Heo
2019-08-31  7:10             ` Paolo Valente
2019-08-31 11:20               ` Tejun Heo
2019-09-02 15:45             ` Paolo Valente
2019-09-02 15:56               ` Tejun Heo
2019-09-02 19:43                 ` Paolo Valente
2019-09-05 16:55                   ` Tejun Heo
2019-09-06  9:07                     ` Paolo Valente
2019-09-06 14:58                       ` Tejun Heo

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	git clone --mirror https://lore.kernel.org/linux-block/0 linux-block/git/0.git

	# If you have public-inbox 1.1+ installed, you may
	# initialize and index your mirror using the following commands:
	public-inbox-init -V2 linux-block linux-block/ https://lore.kernel.org/linux-block \
		linux-block@vger.kernel.org linux-block@archiver.kernel.org
	public-inbox-index linux-block

Example config snippet for mirrors

Newsgroup available over NNTP:
	nntp://nntp.lore.kernel.org/org.kernel.vger.linux-block


AGPL code for this site: git clone https://public-inbox.org/ public-inbox