Linux-Fsdevel Archive on lore.kernel.org
 help / color / Atom feed
From: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz>
To: CAI Qian <caiqian@redhat.com>
Cc: Al Viro <viro@ZenIV.linux.org.uk>, tj <tj@kernel.org>,
	Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>,
	Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com>,
	linux-xfs <linux-xfs@vger.kernel.org>,
	Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>, Nick Piggin <npiggin@gmail.com>,
	linux-fsdevel@vger.kernel.org, Miklos Szeredi <miklos@szeredi.hu>
Subject: Re: local DoS - systemd hang or timeout (WAS: Re: [RFC][CFT] splice_read reworked)
Date: Fri, 7 Oct 2016 09:08:38 +0200
Message-ID: <20161007070838.GA16260@quack2.suse.cz> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <1860793605.807021.1475756759147.JavaMail.zimbra@redhat.com>


So I believe this may be just a problem in overlayfs lockdep annotation
(see below). Added Miklos to CC.

On Thu 06-10-16 08:25:59, CAI Qian wrote:
> > > > Not sure if this related, and there is always a lockdep regards procfs
> > > > happened
> > > > below unless masking by other lockdep issues before the cgroup hang.
> > > > Also,
> > > > this
> > > > hang is always reproducible.
> > > 
> > > Sigh...  Let's get the /proc/*/auxv out of the way - this should deal with
> > > it:
> > So I applied both this and the sanity patch, and both original sanity and the
> > proc warnings went away. However, the cgroup hang can still be reproduced as
> > well as this new xfs internal error below,
> 
> Wait. There is also a lockep happened before the xfs internal error as well.
> 
> [ 5839.452325] ======================================================
> [ 5839.459221] [ INFO: possible circular locking dependency detected ]
> [ 5839.466215] 4.8.0-rc8-splice-fixw-proc+ #4 Not tainted
> [ 5839.471945] -------------------------------------------------------
> [ 5839.478937] trinity-c220/69531 is trying to acquire lock:
> [ 5839.484961]  (&p->lock){+.+.+.}, at: [<ffffffff812ac69c>] seq_read+0x4c/0x3e0
> [ 5839.492967] 
> but task is already holding lock:
> [ 5839.499476]  (sb_writers#8){.+.+.+}, at: [<ffffffff81284be1>] __sb_start_write+0xd1/0xf0
> [ 5839.508560] 
> which lock already depends on the new lock.
> 
> [ 5839.517686] 
> the existing dependency chain (in reverse order) is:
> [ 5839.526036] 
> -> #3 (sb_writers#8){.+.+.+}:
> [ 5839.530751]        [<ffffffff810ff174>] lock_acquire+0xd4/0x240
> [ 5839.537368]        [<ffffffff810f8f4a>] percpu_down_read+0x4a/0x90
> [ 5839.544275]        [<ffffffff81284be1>] __sb_start_write+0xd1/0xf0
> [ 5839.551181]        [<ffffffff812a8544>] mnt_want_write+0x24/0x50
> [ 5839.557892]        [<ffffffffa04a398f>] ovl_want_write+0x1f/0x30 [overlay]
> [ 5839.565577]        [<ffffffffa04a6036>] ovl_do_remove+0x46/0x480 [overlay]
> [ 5839.573259]        [<ffffffffa04a64a3>] ovl_unlink+0x13/0x20 [overlay]
> [ 5839.580555]        [<ffffffff812918ea>] vfs_unlink+0xda/0x190
> [ 5839.586979]        [<ffffffff81293698>] do_unlinkat+0x268/0x2b0
> [ 5839.593599]        [<ffffffff8129419b>] SyS_unlinkat+0x1b/0x30
> [ 5839.600120]        [<ffffffff81003c9c>] do_syscall_64+0x6c/0x1e0
> [ 5839.606836]        [<ffffffff817d4a3f>] return_from_SYSCALL_64+0x0/0x7a
> [ 5839.614231] 

So here is IMO the real culprit: do_unlinkat() grabs fs freeze protection
through mnt_want_write(), we grab also i_rwsem in do_unlinkat() in
I_MUTEX_PARENT class a bit after that and further down in vfs_unlink() we
grab i_rwsem for the unlinked inode itself in default I_MUTEX class. Then
in ovl_want_write() we grab freeze protection again, but this time for the
upper filesystem. That establishes sb_writers (overlay) -> I_MUTEX_PARENT
(overlay) -> I_MUTEX (overlay) -> sb_writers (FS-A) lock ordering
(we maintain locking classes per fs type so that's why I'm showing fs type
in parenthesis).

Now this nesting is nasty because once you add locks that are not tracked
per fs type into the mix, you get cycles. In this case we've got
seq_file->lock and cred_guard_mutex into the mix - the splice path is
doing sb_writers (FS-A) -> seq_file->lock -> cred_guard_mutex (splicing
from seq_file into the real filesystem). Exec path further establishes
cred_guard_mutex -> I_MUTEX (overlay) which closes the full cycle:

sb_writers (FS-A) -> seq_file->lock -> cred_guard_mutex -> i_mutex
(overlay) -> sb_writers (FS-A)

If I analyzed the lockdep trace, this looks like a real (although remote)
deadlock possibility. Miklos?

								Honza

> -> #2 (&sb->s_type->i_mutex_key#17){++++++}:
> [ 5839.620399]        [<ffffffff810ff174>] lock_acquire+0xd4/0x240
> [ 5839.627015]        [<ffffffff817d1b77>] down_read+0x47/0x70
> [ 5839.633242]        [<ffffffff8128cfd2>] lookup_slow+0xc2/0x1f0
> [ 5839.639762]        [<ffffffff8128f6f2>] walk_component+0x172/0x220
> [ 5839.646668]        [<ffffffff81290fd6>] link_path_walk+0x1a6/0x620
> [ 5839.653574]        [<ffffffff81291a81>] path_openat+0xe1/0xdb0
> [ 5839.660092]        [<ffffffff812939e1>] do_filp_open+0x91/0x100
> [ 5839.666707]        [<ffffffff81288e06>] do_open_execat+0x76/0x180
> [ 5839.673517]        [<ffffffff81288f3b>] open_exec+0x2b/0x50
> [ 5839.679743]        [<ffffffff812eccf3>] load_elf_binary+0x2a3/0x10a0
> [ 5839.686844]        [<ffffffff81288917>] search_binary_handler+0x97/0x1d0
> [ 5839.694331]        [<ffffffff81289ed8>] do_execveat_common.isra.35+0x678/0x9a0
> [ 5839.702400]        [<ffffffff8128a4da>] SyS_execve+0x3a/0x50
> [ 5839.708726]        [<ffffffff81003c9c>] do_syscall_64+0x6c/0x1e0
> [ 5839.715441]        [<ffffffff817d4a3f>] return_from_SYSCALL_64+0x0/0x7a
> [ 5839.722833] 
> -> #1 (&sig->cred_guard_mutex){+.+.+.}:
> [ 5839.728510]        [<ffffffff810ff174>] lock_acquire+0xd4/0x240
> [ 5839.735126]        [<ffffffff817cfc66>] mutex_lock_killable_nested+0x86/0x540
> [ 5839.743097]        [<ffffffff81301e84>] lock_trace+0x24/0x60
> [ 5839.749421]        [<ffffffff8130224d>] proc_pid_syscall+0x2d/0x110
> [ 5839.756423]        [<ffffffff81302af0>] proc_single_show+0x50/0x90
> [ 5839.763330]        [<ffffffff812ab867>] traverse+0xf7/0x210
> [ 5839.769557]        [<ffffffff812ac9eb>] seq_read+0x39b/0x3e0
> [ 5839.775884]        [<ffffffff81280573>] do_loop_readv_writev+0x83/0xc0
> [ 5839.783179]        [<ffffffff81281a03>] do_readv_writev+0x213/0x230
> [ 5839.790181]        [<ffffffff81281a59>] vfs_readv+0x39/0x50
> [ 5839.796406]        [<ffffffff81281c12>] do_preadv+0xa2/0xc0
> [ 5839.802634]        [<ffffffff81282ec1>] SyS_preadv+0x11/0x20
> [ 5839.808963]        [<ffffffff81003c9c>] do_syscall_64+0x6c/0x1e0
> [ 5839.815681]        [<ffffffff817d4a3f>] return_from_SYSCALL_64+0x0/0x7a
> [ 5839.823075] 
> -> #0 (&p->lock){+.+.+.}:
> [ 5839.827395]        [<ffffffff810fe69c>] __lock_acquire+0x151c/0x1990
> [ 5839.834500]        [<ffffffff810ff174>] lock_acquire+0xd4/0x240
> [ 5839.841115]        [<ffffffff817cf3b6>] mutex_lock_nested+0x76/0x450
> [ 5839.848219]        [<ffffffff812ac69c>] seq_read+0x4c/0x3e0
> [ 5839.854448]        [<ffffffff8131566b>] kernfs_fop_read+0x12b/0x1b0
> [ 5839.861451]        [<ffffffff81280573>] do_loop_readv_writev+0x83/0xc0
> [ 5839.868742]        [<ffffffff81281a03>] do_readv_writev+0x213/0x230
> [ 5839.875744]        [<ffffffff81281a59>] vfs_readv+0x39/0x50
> [ 5839.881971]        [<ffffffff812bc55a>] default_file_splice_read+0x1aa/0x2c0
> [ 5839.889847]        [<ffffffff812bb913>] do_splice_to+0x73/0x90
> [ 5839.896365]        [<ffffffff812bba1b>] splice_direct_to_actor+0xeb/0x220
> [ 5839.903950]        [<ffffffff812bbbd9>] do_splice_direct+0x89/0xd0
> [ 5839.910857]        [<ffffffff8128261e>] do_sendfile+0x1ce/0x3b0
> [ 5839.917470]        [<ffffffff812831df>] SyS_sendfile64+0x6f/0xd0
> [ 5839.924184]        [<ffffffff81003c9c>] do_syscall_64+0x6c/0x1e0
> [ 5839.930898]        [<ffffffff817d4a3f>] return_from_SYSCALL_64+0x0/0x7a
> [ 5839.938286] 
> other info that might help us debug this:
> 
> [ 5839.947217] Chain exists of:
>   &p->lock --> &sb->s_type->i_mutex_key#17 --> sb_writers#8
> 
> [ 5839.956615]  Possible unsafe locking scenario:
> 
> [ 5839.963218]        CPU0                    CPU1
> [ 5839.968269]        ----                    ----
> [ 5839.973321]   lock(sb_writers#8);
> [ 5839.977046]                                lock(&sb->s_type->i_mutex_key#17);
> [ 5839.985037]                                lock(sb_writers#8);
> [ 5839.991573]   lock(&p->lock);
> [ 5839.994900] 
>  *** DEADLOCK ***
> 
> [ 5840.001503] 1 lock held by trinity-c220/69531:
> [ 5840.006457]  #0:  (sb_writers#8){.+.+.+}, at: [<ffffffff81284be1>] __sb_start_write+0xd1/0xf0
> [ 5840.016031] 
> stack backtrace:
> [ 5840.020891] CPU: 12 PID: 69531 Comm: trinity-c220 Not tainted 4.8.0-rc8-splice-fixw-proc+ #4
> [ 5840.030306] Hardware name: Intel Corporation S2600WTT/S2600WTT, BIOS GRNDSDP1.86B.0044.R00.1501191641 01/19/2015
> [ 5840.041660]  0000000000000086 00000000a1ef62f8 ffff8803ca52f7c0 ffffffff813d2ecc
> [ 5840.049952]  ffffffff82a41160 ffffffff82a913e0 ffff8803ca52f800 ffffffff811dd630
> [ 5840.058245]  ffff8803ca52f840 ffff880392c4ecc8 ffff880392c4e000 0000000000000001
> [ 5840.066537] Call Trace:
> [ 5840.069266]  [<ffffffff813d2ecc>] dump_stack+0x85/0xc9
> [ 5840.075000]  [<ffffffff811dd630>] print_circular_bug+0x1f9/0x207
> [ 5840.081701]  [<ffffffff810fe69c>] __lock_acquire+0x151c/0x1990
> [ 5840.088208]  [<ffffffff810ff174>] lock_acquire+0xd4/0x240
> [ 5840.094232]  [<ffffffff812ac69c>] ? seq_read+0x4c/0x3e0
> [ 5840.100061]  [<ffffffff812ac69c>] ? seq_read+0x4c/0x3e0
> [ 5840.105891]  [<ffffffff817cf3b6>] mutex_lock_nested+0x76/0x450
> [ 5840.112397]  [<ffffffff812ac69c>] ? seq_read+0x4c/0x3e0
> [ 5840.118228]  [<ffffffff810fb3e9>] ? __lock_is_held+0x49/0x70
> [ 5840.124540]  [<ffffffff812ac69c>] seq_read+0x4c/0x3e0
> [ 5840.130175]  [<ffffffff81315540>] ? kernfs_vma_page_mkwrite+0x90/0x90
> [ 5840.137360]  [<ffffffff8131566b>] kernfs_fop_read+0x12b/0x1b0
> [ 5840.143770]  [<ffffffff81315540>] ? kernfs_vma_page_mkwrite+0x90/0x90
> [ 5840.150956]  [<ffffffff81280573>] do_loop_readv_writev+0x83/0xc0
> [ 5840.157657]  [<ffffffff81315540>] ? kernfs_vma_page_mkwrite+0x90/0x90
> [ 5840.164843]  [<ffffffff81281a03>] do_readv_writev+0x213/0x230
> [ 5840.171255]  [<ffffffff81418cf9>] ? __pipe_get_pages+0x24/0x9b
> [ 5840.177762]  [<ffffffff813e6f0f>] ? iov_iter_get_pages_alloc+0x19f/0x360
> [ 5840.185240]  [<ffffffff810fd5f2>] ? __lock_acquire+0x472/0x1990
> [ 5840.191843]  [<ffffffff81281a59>] vfs_readv+0x39/0x50
> [ 5840.197478]  [<ffffffff812bc55a>] default_file_splice_read+0x1aa/0x2c0
> [ 5840.204763]  [<ffffffff810cba89>] ? __might_sleep+0x49/0x80
> [ 5840.210980]  [<ffffffff81349c93>] ? security_file_permission+0xa3/0xc0
> [ 5840.218264]  [<ffffffff812bb913>] do_splice_to+0x73/0x90
> [ 5840.224190]  [<ffffffff812bba1b>] splice_direct_to_actor+0xeb/0x220
> [ 5840.231182]  [<ffffffff812baee0>] ? generic_pipe_buf_nosteal+0x10/0x10
> [ 5840.238465]  [<ffffffff812bbbd9>] do_splice_direct+0x89/0xd0
> [ 5840.244778]  [<ffffffff8128261e>] do_sendfile+0x1ce/0x3b0
> [ 5840.250802]  [<ffffffff812831df>] SyS_sendfile64+0x6f/0xd0
> [ 5840.256922]  [<ffffffff81003c9c>] do_syscall_64+0x6c/0x1e0
> [ 5840.263042]  [<ffffffff817d4a3f>] entry_SYSCALL64_slow_path+0x25/0x25
> 
>    CAI Qian
> --
> To unsubscribe from this list: send the line "unsubscribe linux-xfs" in
> the body of a message to majordomo@vger.kernel.org
> More majordomo info at  http://vger.kernel.org/majordomo-info.html
-- 
Jan Kara <jack@suse.com>
SUSE Labs, CR

  parent reply index

Thread overview: 101+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
     [not found] <20160908235521.GL2356@ZenIV.linux.org.uk>
     [not found] ` <20160909015324.GD30056@dastard>
     [not found]   ` <CA+55aFzohsUXj_3BeFNr2t50Wm=G+7toRDEz=Tk7VJqP3n1hXQ@mail.gmail.com>
     [not found]     ` <CA+55aFxrqCng2Qxasc9pyMrKUGFjo==fEaFT1vkH9Lncte3RgQ@mail.gmail.com>
     [not found]       ` <20160909023452.GO2356@ZenIV.linux.org.uk>
     [not found]         ` <CA+55aFwHQMjO4-vtfB9-ytc=o+DRo-HXVGckvXLboUxgpwb7_g@mail.gmail.com>
     [not found]           ` <20160909221945.GQ2356@ZenIV.linux.org.uk>
     [not found]             ` <CA+55aFzTOOB6oEVaaGD0N7Uznk-W9+ULPwzsxS_L_oZqGVSeLA@mail.gmail.com>
     [not found]               ` <20160914031648.GB2356@ZenIV.linux.org.uk>
     [not found]                 ` <20160914133925.2fba4629@roar.ozlabs.ibm.com>
2016-09-18  5:33                   ` xfs_file_splice_read: possible circular locking dependency detected Al Viro
2016-09-19  3:08                     ` Nicholas Piggin
2016-09-19  6:11                       ` Al Viro
2016-09-19  7:26                         ` Nicholas Piggin
     [not found]                 ` <CA+55aFznQaOWoSMNphgGJJWZ=8-odrc0DAUMzfGPQe+_N4UgNA@mail.gmail.com>
     [not found]                   ` <20160914042559.GC2356@ZenIV.linux.org.uk>
     [not found]                     ` <20160917082007.GA6489@ZenIV.linux.org.uk>
     [not found]                       ` <20160917190023.GA8039@ZenIV.linux.org.uk>
2016-09-18 19:31                         ` skb_splice_bits() and large chunks in pipe (was " Al Viro
2016-09-18 20:12                           ` Linus Torvalds
2016-09-18 22:31                             ` Al Viro
2016-09-19  0:18                               ` Linus Torvalds
2016-09-23 19:00                         ` [RFC][CFT] splice_read reworked Al Viro
2016-09-23 19:01                           ` [PATCH 01/11] fix memory leaks in tracing_buffers_splice_read() Al Viro
2016-09-23 19:02                           ` [PATCH 02/11] splice_to_pipe(): don't open-code wakeup_pipe_readers() Al Viro
2016-09-23 19:02                           ` [PATCH 03/11] splice: switch get_iovec_page_array() to iov_iter Al Viro
2016-09-23 19:03                           ` [PATCH 04/11] splice: lift pipe_lock out of splice_to_pipe() Al Viro
2016-09-23 19:45                             ` Linus Torvalds
2016-09-23 20:10                               ` Al Viro
2016-09-23 20:36                                 ` Linus Torvalds
2016-09-24  3:59                                   ` Al Viro
2016-09-24 17:29                                     ` Al Viro
2016-09-27 15:38                                       ` Nicholas Piggin
2016-09-27 15:53                                       ` Chuck Lever
2016-09-24  3:59                                   ` [PATCH 04/12] " Al Viro
2016-09-26 13:35                                     ` Miklos Szeredi
2016-09-27  4:14                                       ` Al Viro
2016-12-17 19:54                                     ` Andreas Schwab
2016-12-18 19:28                                       ` Linus Torvalds
2016-12-18 19:57                                         ` Andreas Schwab
2016-12-18 20:12                                         ` Al Viro
2016-12-18 20:30                                           ` Al Viro
2016-12-18 22:10                                             ` Linus Torvalds
2016-12-18 22:18                                               ` Al Viro
2016-12-18 22:22                                                 ` Linus Torvalds
2016-12-18 22:49                                               ` Andreas Schwab
2016-12-21 18:56                                               ` Andreas Schwab
2016-12-21 19:12                                                 ` Linus Torvalds
2016-09-24  4:00                                   ` [PATCH 06/12] new helper: add_to_pipe() Al Viro
2016-09-26 13:49                                     ` Miklos Szeredi
2016-09-24  4:01                                   ` [PATCH 10/12] new iov_iter flavour: pipe-backed Al Viro
2016-09-29 20:53                                     ` Miklos Szeredi
2016-09-29 22:50                                       ` Al Viro
2016-09-30  7:30                                         ` Miklos Szeredi
2016-10-03  3:34                                           ` [RFC] O_DIRECT vs EFAULT (was Re: [PATCH 10/12] new iov_iter flavour: pipe-backed) Al Viro
2016-10-03 17:07                                             ` Linus Torvalds
2016-10-03 18:54                                               ` Al Viro
2016-09-24  4:01                                   ` [PATCH 11/12] switch generic_file_splice_read() to use of ->read_iter() Al Viro
2016-09-24  4:02                                   ` [PATCH 12/12] switch default_file_splice_read() to use of pipe-backed iov_iter Al Viro
2016-09-23 19:03                           ` [PATCH 05/11] skb_splice_bits(): get rid of callback Al Viro
2016-09-23 19:04                           ` [PATCH 06/11] new helper: add_to_pipe() Al Viro
2016-09-23 19:04                           ` [PATCH 07/11] fuse_dev_splice_read(): switch to add_to_pipe() Al Viro
2016-09-23 19:06                           ` [PATCH 08/11] cifs: don't use memcpy() to copy struct iov_iter Al Viro
2016-09-23 19:08                           ` [PATCH 09/11] fuse_ioctl_copy_user(): don't open-code copy_page_{to,from}_iter() Al Viro
2016-09-26  9:31                             ` Miklos Szeredi
2016-09-23 19:09                           ` [PATCH 10/11] new iov_iter flavour: pipe-backed Al Viro
2016-09-23 19:10                           ` [PATCH 11/11] switch generic_file_splice_read() to use of ->read_iter() Al Viro
2016-09-30 13:32                           ` [RFC][CFT] splice_read reworked CAI Qian
2016-09-30 17:42                             ` CAI Qian
2016-09-30 18:33                               ` CAI Qian
2016-10-03  1:37                                 ` Al Viro
2016-10-03 17:49                                   ` CAI Qian
2016-10-04 17:39                                     ` local DoS - systemd hang or timeout (WAS: Re: [RFC][CFT] splice_read reworked) CAI Qian
2016-10-04 21:42                                       ` tj
2016-10-05 14:09                                         ` CAI Qian
2016-10-05 15:30                                           ` tj
2016-10-05 15:54                                             ` CAI Qian
2016-10-05 18:57                                               ` CAI Qian
2016-10-05 20:05                                                 ` Al Viro
2016-10-06 12:20                                                   ` CAI Qian
2016-10-06 12:25                                                     ` CAI Qian
2016-10-06 16:11                                                       ` CAI Qian
2016-10-06 17:00                                                         ` Linus Torvalds
2016-10-06 18:12                                                           ` CAI Qian
2016-10-07  9:57                                                           ` Dave Chinner
2016-10-07 15:25                                                             ` Linus Torvalds
2016-10-07  7:08                                                       ` Jan Kara [this message]
2016-10-07 14:43                                                         ` CAI Qian
2016-10-07 15:27                                                           ` CAI Qian
2016-10-07 18:56                                                             ` CAI Qian
2016-10-09 21:54                                                               ` Dave Chinner
2016-10-10 14:10                                                                 ` CAI Qian
2016-10-10 20:14                                                                   ` CAI Qian
2016-10-10 21:57                                                                   ` Dave Chinner
2016-10-12 19:50                                                                     ` [bisected] " CAI Qian
2016-10-12 20:59                                                                       ` Dave Chinner
2016-10-13 16:25                                                                         ` CAI Qian
2016-10-13 20:49                                                                           ` Dave Chinner
2016-10-13 20:56                                                                             ` CAI Qian
2016-10-09 21:51                                                           ` Dave Chinner
2016-10-21 15:38                                                         ` [4.9-rc1+] overlayfs lockdep CAI Qian
2016-10-24 12:57                                                           ` Miklos Szeredi
2016-10-07  9:27                                                     ` local DoS - systemd hang or timeout (WAS: Re: [RFC][CFT] splice_read reworked) Dave Chinner
2016-10-03  1:42                               ` [RFC][CFT] splice_read reworked Al Viro
2016-10-03 14:06                                 ` CAI Qian
2016-10-03 15:20                                   ` CAI Qian
2016-10-03 21:12                                     ` Dave Chinner
2016-10-04 13:57                                       ` CAI Qian
2016-10-03 20:32                                   ` CAI Qian
2016-10-03 20:35                                     ` Al Viro
2016-10-04 13:29                                       ` CAI Qian
2016-10-04 14:28                                         ` Al Viro
2016-10-04 16:21                                           ` CAI Qian
2016-10-04 20:12                                             ` Al Viro
2016-10-05 14:30                                               ` CAI Qian
2016-10-05 16:07                                                 ` Al Viro
2016-09-19  0:22 skb_splice_bits() and large chunks in pipe (was Re: xfs_file_splice_read: possible circular locking dependency detected Al Viro
2016-09-20  9:51 ` Herbert Xu

Reply instructions:

You may reply publicly to this message via plain-text email
using any one of the following methods:

* Save the following mbox file, import it into your mail client,
  and reply-to-all from there: mbox

  Avoid top-posting and favor interleaved quoting:
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posting_style#Interleaved_style

* Reply using the --to, --cc, and --in-reply-to
  switches of git-send-email(1):

  git send-email \
    --in-reply-to=20161007070838.GA16260@quack2.suse.cz \
    --to=jack@suse.cz \
    --cc=axboe@kernel.dk \
    --cc=caiqian@redhat.com \
    --cc=david@fromorbit.com \
    --cc=linux-fsdevel@vger.kernel.org \
    --cc=linux-xfs@vger.kernel.org \
    --cc=miklos@szeredi.hu \
    --cc=npiggin@gmail.com \
    --cc=tj@kernel.org \
    --cc=torvalds@linux-foundation.org \
    --cc=viro@ZenIV.linux.org.uk \
    /path/to/YOUR_REPLY

  https://kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/git-send-email.html

* If your mail client supports setting the In-Reply-To header
  via mailto: links, try the mailto: link

Linux-Fsdevel Archive on lore.kernel.org

Archives are clonable:
	git clone --mirror https://lore.kernel.org/linux-fsdevel/0 linux-fsdevel/git/0.git

	# If you have public-inbox 1.1+ installed, you may
	# initialize and index your mirror using the following commands:
	public-inbox-init -V2 linux-fsdevel linux-fsdevel/ https://lore.kernel.org/linux-fsdevel \
		linux-fsdevel@vger.kernel.org
	public-inbox-index linux-fsdevel

Example config snippet for mirrors

Newsgroup available over NNTP:
	nntp://nntp.lore.kernel.org/org.kernel.vger.linux-fsdevel


AGPL code for this site: git clone https://public-inbox.org/public-inbox.git