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From: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
To: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>, Linux-MM <linux-mm@kvack.org>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@surriel.com>, Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>,
	Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>,
	LKML <linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org>,
	Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
Subject: [PATCH 00/27] Move LRU page reclaim from zones to nodes v7
Date: Tue, 21 Jun 2016 15:15:39 +0100	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <1466518566-30034-1-git-send-email-mgorman@techsingularity.net> (raw)

(sorry for resend, the previous attempt didn't go through fully for
some reason)

The bulk of the updates are in response to review from Vlastimil Babka
and received a lot more testing than v6.

Changelog since v6
o Correct reclaim_idx when direct reclaiming for memcg
o Also account LRU pages per zone for compaction/reclaim
o Add page_pgdat helper with more efficient lookup
o Init pgdat LRU lock only once
o Slight optimisation to wake_all_kswapds
o Always wake kcompactd when kswapd is going to sleep
o Rebase to mmotm as of June 15th, 2016

Changelog since v5
o Rebase and adjust to changes

Changelog since v4
o Rebase on top of v3 of page allocator optimisation series

Changelog since v3
o Rebase on top of the page allocator optimisation series
o Remove RFC tag

This is the latest version of a series that moves LRUs from the zones to
the node that is based upon 4.6-rc3 plus the page allocator optimisation
series. Conceptually, this is simple but there are a lot of details. Some
of the broad motivations for this are;

1. The residency of a page partially depends on what zone the page was
   allocated from.  This is partially combatted by the fair zone allocation
   policy but that is a partial solution that introduces overhead in the
   page allocator paths.

2. Currently, reclaim on node 0 behaves slightly different to node 1. For
   example, direct reclaim scans in zonelist order and reclaims even if
   the zone is over the high watermark regardless of the age of pages
   in that LRU. Kswapd on the other hand starts reclaim on the highest
   unbalanced zone. A difference in distribution of file/anon pages due
   to when they were allocated results can result in a difference in 
   again. While the fair zone allocation policy mitigates some of the
   problems here, the page reclaim results on a multi-zone node will
   always be different to a single-zone node.
   it was scheduled on as a result.

3. kswapd and the page allocator scan zones in the opposite order to
   avoid interfering with each other but it's sensitive to timing.  This
   mitigates the page allocator using pages that were allocated very recently
   in the ideal case but it's sensitive to timing. When kswapd is allocating
   from lower zones then it's great but during the rebalancing of the highest
   zone, the page allocator and kswapd interfere with each other. It's worse
   if the highest zone is small and difficult to balance.

4. slab shrinkers are node-based which makes it harder to identify the exact
   relationship between slab reclaim and LRU reclaim.

The reason we have zone-based reclaim is that we used to have
large highmem zones in common configurations and it was necessary
to quickly find ZONE_NORMAL pages for reclaim. Today, this is much
less of a concern as machines with lots of memory will (or should) use
64-bit kernels. Combinations of 32-bit hardware and 64-bit hardware are
rare. Machines that do use highmem should have relatively low highmem:lowmem
ratios than we worried about in the past.

Conceptually, moving to node LRUs should be easier to understand. The
page allocator plays fewer tricks to game reclaim and reclaim behaves
similarly on all nodes. 

The series has been tested on a 16 core UMA machine and a 2-socket 48 core
NUMA machine. The UMA results are presented in most cases as the NUMA machine
behaved similarly.

pagealloc
---------

This is a microbenchmark that shows the benefit of removing the fair zone
allocation policy. It was tested uip to order-4 but only orders 0 and 1 are
shown as the other orders were comparable.

                                           4.7.0-rc3                  4.7.0-rc3
                                      mmotm-20160615              nodelru-v7r17
Min      total-odr0-1               485.00 (  0.00%)           462.00 (  4.74%)
Min      total-odr0-2               354.00 (  0.00%)           341.00 (  3.67%)
Min      total-odr0-4               285.00 (  0.00%)           277.00 (  2.81%)
Min      total-odr0-8               249.00 (  0.00%)           240.00 (  3.61%)
Min      total-odr0-16              230.00 (  0.00%)           224.00 (  2.61%)
Min      total-odr0-32              222.00 (  0.00%)           215.00 (  3.15%)
Min      total-odr0-64              216.00 (  0.00%)           210.00 (  2.78%)
Min      total-odr0-128             214.00 (  0.00%)           208.00 (  2.80%)
Min      total-odr0-256             248.00 (  0.00%)           233.00 (  6.05%)
Min      total-odr0-512             277.00 (  0.00%)           270.00 (  2.53%)
Min      total-odr0-1024            294.00 (  0.00%)           284.00 (  3.40%)
Min      total-odr0-2048            308.00 (  0.00%)           298.00 (  3.25%)
Min      total-odr0-4096            318.00 (  0.00%)           307.00 (  3.46%)
Min      total-odr0-8192            322.00 (  0.00%)           308.00 (  4.35%)
Min      total-odr0-16384           324.00 (  0.00%)           309.00 (  4.63%)
Min      total-odr1-1               729.00 (  0.00%)           686.00 (  5.90%)
Min      total-odr1-2               533.00 (  0.00%)           520.00 (  2.44%)
Min      total-odr1-4               434.00 (  0.00%)           415.00 (  4.38%)
Min      total-odr1-8               390.00 (  0.00%)           364.00 (  6.67%)
Min      total-odr1-16              359.00 (  0.00%)           335.00 (  6.69%)
Min      total-odr1-32              356.00 (  0.00%)           327.00 (  8.15%)
Min      total-odr1-64              356.00 (  0.00%)           321.00 (  9.83%)
Min      total-odr1-128             356.00 (  0.00%)           333.00 (  6.46%)
Min      total-odr1-256             354.00 (  0.00%)           337.00 (  4.80%)
Min      total-odr1-512             366.00 (  0.00%)           340.00 (  7.10%)
Min      total-odr1-1024            373.00 (  0.00%)           354.00 (  5.09%)
Min      total-odr1-2048            375.00 (  0.00%)           354.00 (  5.60%)
Min      total-odr1-4096            374.00 (  0.00%)           354.00 (  5.35%)
Min      total-odr1-8192            370.00 (  0.00%)           355.00 (  4.05%)

This shows a steady improvement throughout. The primary benefit is from
reduced system CPU usage which is obvious from the overall times;

           4.7.0-rc3   4.7.0-rc3
        mmotm-20160615 nodelru-v7
User          174.06      174.58
System       2656.78     2485.21
Elapsed      2885.07     2713.67

The vmstats also showed that the fair zone allocation policy was definitely
removed as can be seen here;

                             4.7.0-rc3   4.7.0-rc3
                          mmotm-20160615nodelru-v7r17
DMA32 allocs               28794408561           0
Normal allocs              48431969998 77226313470
Movable allocs                       0           0

tiobench on ext4
----------------

tiobench is a benchmark that artifically benefits if old pages remain resident
while new pages get reclaimed. The fair zone allocation policy mitigates this
problem so pages age fairly. While the benchmark has problems, it is important
that tiobench performance remains constant as it implies that page aging
problems that the fair zone allocation policy fixes are not re-introduced.

                                         4.7.0-rc3             4.7.0-rc3
                                    mmotm-20160615         nodelru-v7r17
Min      PotentialReadSpeed        90.24 (  0.00%)       90.14 ( -0.11%)
Min      SeqRead-MB/sec-1          80.63 (  0.00%)       83.09 (  3.05%)
Min      SeqRead-MB/sec-2          71.91 (  0.00%)       72.44 (  0.74%)
Min      SeqRead-MB/sec-4          75.20 (  0.00%)       74.32 ( -1.17%)
Min      SeqRead-MB/sec-8          65.30 (  0.00%)       65.21 ( -0.14%)
Min      SeqRead-MB/sec-16         62.62 (  0.00%)       62.12 ( -0.80%)
Min      RandRead-MB/sec-1          0.90 (  0.00%)        0.94 (  4.44%)
Min      RandRead-MB/sec-2          0.96 (  0.00%)        0.97 (  1.04%)
Min      RandRead-MB/sec-4          1.43 (  0.00%)        1.41 ( -1.40%)
Min      RandRead-MB/sec-8          1.67 (  0.00%)        1.72 (  2.99%)
Min      RandRead-MB/sec-16         1.77 (  0.00%)        1.86 (  5.08%)
Min      SeqWrite-MB/sec-1         78.12 (  0.00%)       79.78 (  2.12%)
Min      SeqWrite-MB/sec-2         72.74 (  0.00%)       73.23 (  0.67%)
Min      SeqWrite-MB/sec-4         79.40 (  0.00%)       78.32 ( -1.36%)
Min      SeqWrite-MB/sec-8         73.18 (  0.00%)       71.40 ( -2.43%)
Min      SeqWrite-MB/sec-16        75.82 (  0.00%)       75.24 ( -0.76%)
Min      RandWrite-MB/sec-1         1.18 (  0.00%)        1.15 ( -2.54%)
Min      RandWrite-MB/sec-2         1.05 (  0.00%)        0.99 ( -5.71%)
Min      RandWrite-MB/sec-4         1.00 (  0.00%)        0.96 ( -4.00%)
Min      RandWrite-MB/sec-8         0.91 (  0.00%)        0.92 (  1.10%)
Min      RandWrite-MB/sec-16        0.92 (  0.00%)        0.92 (  0.00%)

This shows that the series has little or not impact on tiobench which is
desirable. It indicates that the fair zone allocation policy was removed
in a manner that didn't reintroduce one class of page aging bug. There
were only minor differences in overall reclaim activity

                             4.7.0-rc3   4.7.0-rc3
                          mmotm-20160615nodelru-v7r17
Minor Faults                    640992      640721
Major Faults                       728         623
Swap Ins                             0           0
Swap Outs                            0           0
DMA allocs                           0           0
DMA32 allocs                  46174282    44219717
Normal allocs                 77949344    79858024
Movable allocs                       0           0
Allocation stalls                   38          76
Direct pages scanned             17463       34865
Kswapd pages scanned          93331163    93302388
Kswapd pages reclaimed        93328173    93299677
Direct pages reclaimed           17463       34865
Kswapd efficiency                  99%         99%
Kswapd velocity              13729.855   13755.612
Direct efficiency                 100%        100%
Direct velocity                  2.569       5.140
Percentage direct scans             0%          0%
Page writes by reclaim               0           0
Page writes file                     0           0
Page writes anon                     0           0
Page reclaim immediate              54          36

kswapd activity was roughly comparable. There was slight differences
in direct reclaim activity but negligible in the context of the overall
workload (velocity of 5 pages per second with the patches applied, 2 pages
per second in the baseline kernel).

pgbench read-only large configuration on ext4
---------------------------------------------

pgbench is a database benchmark that can be sensitive to page reclaim
decisions. This also checks if removing the fair zone allocation policy
is safe

pgbench Transactions
                        4.7.0-rc3             4.7.0-rc3
                   mmotm-20160615         nodelru-v7r17
Hmean    1       191.00 (  0.00%)      193.67 (  1.40%)
Hmean    5       338.59 (  0.00%)      336.99 ( -0.47%)
Hmean    12      374.03 (  0.00%)      386.15 (  3.24%)
Hmean    21      372.24 (  0.00%)      372.02 ( -0.06%)
Hmean    30      383.98 (  0.00%)      370.69 ( -3.46%)
Hmean    32      431.01 (  0.00%)      438.47 (  1.73%)

Negligible differences again. As with tiobench, overall reclaim activity
was comparable.

bonnie++ on ext4
----------------

No interesting performance difference, negligible differences on reclaim
stats.

paralleldd on ext4
------------------

This workload uses varying numbers of dd instances to read large amounts of
data from disk.

paralleldd
                               4.7.0-rc3             4.7.0-rc3
                          mmotm-20160615         nodelru-v7r17
Amean    Elapsd-1       181.57 (  0.00%)      179.63 (  1.07%)
Amean    Elapsd-3       188.29 (  0.00%)      183.68 (  2.45%)
Amean    Elapsd-5       188.02 (  0.00%)      181.73 (  3.35%)
Amean    Elapsd-7       186.07 (  0.00%)      184.11 (  1.05%)
Amean    Elapsd-12      188.16 (  0.00%)      183.51 (  2.47%)
Amean    Elapsd-16      189.03 (  0.00%)      181.27 (  4.10%)

           4.7.0-rc3   4.7.0-rc3
        mmotm-20160615nodelru-v7r17
User         1439.23     1433.37
System       8332.31     8216.01
Elapsed      3619.80     3532.69

There is a slight gain in performance, some of which is from the reduced system
CPU usage. There areminor differences in reclaim activity but nothing significant

                             4.7.0-rc3   4.7.0-rc3
                          mmotm-20160615nodelru-v7r17
Minor Faults                    362486      358215
Major Faults                      1143        1113
Swap Ins                            26           0
Swap Outs                         2920         482
DMA allocs                           0           0
DMA32 allocs                  31568814    28598887
Normal allocs                 46539922    49514444
Movable allocs                       0           0
Allocation stalls                    0           0
Direct pages scanned                 0           0
Kswapd pages scanned          40886878    40849710
Kswapd pages reclaimed        40869923    40835207
Direct pages reclaimed               0           0
Kswapd efficiency                  99%         99%
Kswapd velocity              11295.342   11563.344
Direct efficiency                 100%        100%
Direct velocity                  0.000       0.000
Slabs scanned                   131673      126099
Direct inode steals                 57          60
Kswapd inode steals                762          18

It basically shows that kswapd was active at roughly the same rate in
both kernels. There was also comparable slab scanning activity and direct
reclaim was avoided in both cases. There appears to be a large difference
in numbers of inodes reclaimed but the workload has few active inodes and
is likely a timing artifact. It's interesting to note that the node-lru
did not swap in any pages but given the low swap activity, it's unlikely
to be significant.

stutter
-------

stutter simulates a simple workload. One part uses a lot of anonymous
memory, a second measures mmap latency and a third copies a large file.
The primary metric is checking for mmap latency.

stutter
                             4.7.0-rc3             4.7.0-rc3
                        mmotm-20160615         nodelru-v7r17
Min         mmap     16.8422 (  0.00%)     15.9821 (  5.11%)
1st-qrtle   mmap     57.8709 (  0.00%)     58.0794 ( -0.36%)
2nd-qrtle   mmap     58.4335 (  0.00%)     59.4286 ( -1.70%)
3rd-qrtle   mmap     58.6957 (  0.00%)     59.6862 ( -1.69%)
Max-90%     mmap     58.9388 (  0.00%)     59.8759 ( -1.59%)
Max-93%     mmap     59.0505 (  0.00%)     59.9333 ( -1.50%)
Max-95%     mmap     59.1877 (  0.00%)     59.9844 ( -1.35%)
Max-99%     mmap     60.3237 (  0.00%)     60.2337 (  0.15%)
Max         mmap    285.6454 (  0.00%)    135.6006 ( 52.53%)
Mean        mmap     57.8366 (  0.00%)     58.4884 ( -1.13%)

This shows that there is a slight impact on mmap latency but that
the worst-case outlier is much improved. As the problem with this
benchmark used to be that the kernel stalled for minutes, this
difference is negligible.

Some of the vmstats are interesting

                             4.7.0-rc3   4.7.0-rc3
                          mmotm-20160615nodelru-v7r17
Swap Ins                            58          42
Swap Outs                            0           0
Allocation stalls                   16           0
Direct pages scanned              1374           0
Kswapd pages scanned          42454910    41782544
Kswapd pages reclaimed        41571035    41781833
Direct pages reclaimed            1167           0
Kswapd efficiency                  97%         99%
Kswapd velocity              14774.479   14223.796
Direct efficiency                  84%        100%
Direct velocity                  0.478       0.000
Percentage direct scans             0%          0%
Page writes by reclaim          696918           0
Page writes file                696918           0
Page writes anon                     0           0
Page reclaim immediate            2940         137
Sector Reads                  81644424    81699544
Sector Writes                 99193620    98862160
Page rescued immediate               0           0
Slabs scanned                  1279838       22640

kswapd and direct reclaim activity are similar but the node LRU series
did not attempt to trigger any page writes from reclaim context.

This series is not without its hazards. There are at least three areas
that I'm concerned with even though I could not reproduce any problems in
that area.

1. Reclaim/compaction is going to be affected because the amount of reclaim is
   no longer targetted at a specific zone. Compaction works on a per-zone basis
   so there is no guarantee that reclaiming a few THP's worth page pages will
   have a positive impact on compaction success rates.

2. The Slab/LRU reclaim ratio is affected because the frequency the shrinkers
   are called is now different. This may or may not be a problem but if it
   is, it'll be because shrinkers are not called enough and some balancing
   is required.

3. The anon/file reclaim ratio may be affected. Pages about to be dirtied are
   distributed between zones and the fair zone allocation policy used to do
   something very similar for anon. The distribution is now different but not
   necessarily in any way that matters but it's still worth bearing in mind.

 Documentation/cgroup-v1/memcg_test.txt    |   4 +-
 Documentation/cgroup-v1/memory.txt        |   4 +-
 arch/s390/appldata/appldata_mem.c         |   2 +-
 arch/tile/mm/pgtable.c                    |  18 +-
 drivers/base/node.c                       |  73 +--
 drivers/staging/android/lowmemorykiller.c |  12 +-
 fs/fs-writeback.c                         |   4 +-
 fs/fuse/file.c                            |   8 +-
 fs/nfs/internal.h                         |   2 +-
 fs/nfs/write.c                            |   2 +-
 fs/proc/meminfo.c                         |  14 +-
 include/linux/backing-dev.h               |   2 +-
 include/linux/memcontrol.h                |  32 +-
 include/linux/mm.h                        |   5 +
 include/linux/mm_inline.h                 |  21 +-
 include/linux/mm_types.h                  |   2 +-
 include/linux/mmzone.h                    | 158 +++---
 include/linux/swap.h                      |  23 +-
 include/linux/topology.h                  |   2 +-
 include/linux/vm_event_item.h             |  14 +-
 include/linux/vmstat.h                    | 111 +++-
 include/linux/writeback.h                 |   2 +-
 include/trace/events/vmscan.h             |  63 ++-
 include/trace/events/writeback.h          |  10 +-
 kernel/power/snapshot.c                   |  10 +-
 kernel/sysctl.c                           |   4 +-
 mm/backing-dev.c                          |  15 +-
 mm/compaction.c                           |  28 +-
 mm/filemap.c                              |  14 +-
 mm/huge_memory.c                          |  33 +-
 mm/internal.h                             |  11 +-
 mm/memcontrol.c                           | 246 ++++----
 mm/memory-failure.c                       |   4 +-
 mm/memory_hotplug.c                       |   7 +-
 mm/mempolicy.c                            |   2 +-
 mm/migrate.c                              |  35 +-
 mm/mlock.c                                |  12 +-
 mm/page-writeback.c                       | 124 ++--
 mm/page_alloc.c                           | 268 ++++-----
 mm/page_idle.c                            |   4 +-
 mm/rmap.c                                 |  14 +-
 mm/shmem.c                                |  12 +-
 mm/swap.c                                 |  66 +--
 mm/swap_state.c                           |   4 +-
 mm/util.c                                 |   4 +-
 mm/vmscan.c                               | 901 +++++++++++++++---------------
 mm/vmstat.c                               | 376 ++++++++++---
 mm/workingset.c                           |  54 +-
 48 files changed, 1573 insertions(+), 1263 deletions(-)

-- 
2.6.4

             reply	other threads:[~2016-06-21 14:16 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 62+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2016-06-21 14:15 Mel Gorman [this message]
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 01/27] mm, vmstat: Add infrastructure for per-node vmstats Mel Gorman
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 02/27] mm, vmscan: Move lru_lock to the node Mel Gorman
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 03/27] mm, vmscan: Move LRU lists to node Mel Gorman
2016-06-22 12:50   ` Vlastimil Babka
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 04/27] mm, vmscan: Begin reclaiming pages on a per-node basis Mel Gorman
2016-06-22 14:04   ` Vlastimil Babka
2016-06-22 16:00     ` Vlastimil Babka
2016-06-23 11:07       ` Mel Gorman
2016-06-23 11:13         ` Michal Hocko
2016-06-23 10:58     ` Mel Gorman
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 05/27] mm, vmscan: Have kswapd only scan based on the highest requested zone Mel Gorman
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 06/27] mm, vmscan: Make kswapd reclaim in terms of nodes Mel Gorman
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 07/27] mm, vmscan: Remove balance gap Mel Gorman
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 08/27] mm, vmscan: Simplify the logic deciding whether kswapd sleeps Mel Gorman
2016-06-22 15:30   ` Vlastimil Babka
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 09/27] mm, vmscan: By default have direct reclaim only shrink once per node Mel Gorman
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 10/27] mm, vmscan: Remove duplicate logic clearing node congestion and dirty state Mel Gorman
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 11/27] mm: vmscan: Do not reclaim from kswapd if there is any eligible zone Mel Gorman
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 12/27] mm, vmscan: Make shrink_node decisions more node-centric Mel Gorman
2016-06-22 13:20   ` Michal Hocko
2016-06-22 15:42   ` Vlastimil Babka
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 13/27] mm, memcg: Move memcg limit enforcement from zones to nodes Mel Gorman
2016-06-22 13:15   ` Michal Hocko
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 14/27] mm, workingset: Make working set detection node-aware Mel Gorman
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 15/27] mm, page_alloc: Consider dirtyable memory in terms of nodes Mel Gorman
2016-06-22 14:15   ` Michal Hocko
2016-06-22 14:27     ` Michal Hocko
2016-06-23 12:53       ` Mel Gorman
2016-06-23 13:13         ` Michal Hocko
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 16/27] mm: Move page mapped accounting to the node Mel Gorman
2016-06-21 22:32   ` Andrew Morton
2016-06-23  8:35     ` Mel Gorman
2016-06-22 14:35   ` Michal Hocko
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 17/27] mm: Rename NR_ANON_PAGES to NR_ANON_MAPPED Mel Gorman
2016-06-22 14:28   ` Michal Hocko
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 18/27] mm: Move most file-based accounting to the node Mel Gorman
2016-06-22 14:38   ` Michal Hocko
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 19/27] mm: Move vmscan writes and file write " Mel Gorman
2016-06-22 14:40   ` Michal Hocko
2016-06-23 13:57     ` Mel Gorman
2016-06-23 14:06       ` Vlastimil Babka
2016-06-23 16:03         ` Mel Gorman
2016-06-21 14:15 ` [PATCH 20/27] mm, vmscan: Update classzone_idx if buffer_heads_over_limit Mel Gorman
2016-06-22 14:49   ` Michal Hocko
2016-06-21 14:16 ` [PATCH 21/27] mm, vmscan: Only wakeup kswapd once per node for the requested classzone Mel Gorman
2016-06-22 16:08   ` Vlastimil Babka
2016-06-21 14:16 ` [PATCH 22/27] mm: Convert zone_reclaim to node_reclaim Mel Gorman
2016-06-21 14:16 ` [PATCH 23/27] mm, vmscan: Add classzone information to tracepoints Mel Gorman
2016-06-21 14:16 ` [PATCH 24/27] mm, page_alloc: Remove fair zone allocation policy Mel Gorman
2016-06-21 14:16 ` [PATCH 25/27] mm: page_alloc: Cache the last node whose dirty limit is reached Mel Gorman
2016-06-21 14:16 ` [PATCH 26/27] mm: vmstat: Replace __count_zone_vm_events with a zone id equivalent Mel Gorman
2016-06-21 14:16 ` [PATCH 27/27] mm: vmstat: Account per-zone stalls and pages skipped during reclaim Mel Gorman
2016-06-23 10:26 ` [PATCH 00/27] Move LRU page reclaim from zones to nodes v7 Mel Gorman
2016-06-23 11:27   ` Michal Hocko
2016-06-23 12:33     ` Mel Gorman
2016-06-23 12:44       ` Michal Hocko
2016-06-23 21:45   ` Andrew Morton
2016-06-24  6:35 ` Balbir Singh
2016-06-24  7:50   ` Mel Gorman
2016-06-27 12:48     ` Balbir Singh
  -- strict thread matches above, loose matches on Subject: below --
2016-06-21 11:43 Mel Gorman

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